LITERATURE


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Qualitative Analysis of Triglycerides in Cooking Oil Using GC/MS
The following examples illustrate the use of the combined data from EI and CI for the triglyceride analysis of a butter sample by GC/MS.
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Analysis of Low Concentration BPA in Consumer Products by GC/MS without Derivatization
The following poster discusses the analysis of low concentrations of Bisphenol A in conumser products by GC/MS without derivatization.
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GCMS Application - GC-MS Application for Artificial Photosynthesis Research (Japan)
Quantitation of hepcidin was tested using the LCMS 8050 triple quadruple mass spectrometer.
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GCMS Application - Hydrogen as a Carrier Gas for GCMS Applications (Japan)
This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of trace levels of 24 organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in four different baby foods using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS
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GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database
This Application News introduces the usefulness of the forensic substance library in this GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database.
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Applications of Comprehensive GCxGCMS Using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer With Ultra-high Scan Speed
A new quadrupole GCMS system, capable of scanning 20,000amu/sec and 100Hz has been developed that meets the data acquisition requirements of the comprehensive GCxGCMS technique. In this study, complex naturally-occurring products will be analyzed that demonstrate the utility of this new GCMS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Adipose Fatty Acids in Blood Utilizing a GCxGCMS System (Japan)
Adipose extracted from human serum was converted to fatty acid methyl ester, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system. This analysis was performed in conjunction with representatives from Shimane University
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Light Oil Using a GCxGCMS System (Japan)
Puffer fish blood serum was analyzed with a GC-MS after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, Osaka Prefecture University.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Light Oil Utilizing a GCxGCMS System (Japan)
Dog cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed with a GC-MS system after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Automobile Cabin Air by Thermal Desorption GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet (Japan)
This datasheet investigates the effectiveness of using GC/MS to analyze non-volatile matrices, by using DMI-GC/MS to analyze detergent residues on clothing.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Organophosphorus Pesticides in Baby Food by GCMS-TQ8030 (SSI)
The formula of substances in an unknown mixture were predicted using an ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer with accurate mass and accurate MSn capability
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Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 1
Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 1, GCMS in drug screening and clinical chemistry, TLC/MS offline coupling, Higher speed through Fast-GCMS, Determination of oil in water according to DIN H53
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Pesticides in Baby Foods Using a GCMS-TQ8030 GC/MS/MS, Part II (SSI)
This application note describes BAC analysis using a GCFID in parallel with a mass spectrometer (MS) for positive compound identification.
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Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GC x GC-MS
Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GC x GC-MS
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Analysis of Ethylene in Food Using GC/MS
Ethylene is a type of plant hormone. It promotes the growth of fruits and vegetables, and suppresses the sprouting of potatoes. This experiment details the analysis of ethylene produced by apples.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GCMS (Japan)
Here we introduce an example of ultra fast analysis of resveratrol in red wine using the Nexera ultra high performance liquid chromatograph and the Prominence RF-20Axs high-sensitivity fluorescence detector.
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GCMS Application - GCMS Forensic Toxicological Database, Part 1 (Japan)
In this work, several examples and data are provided on these topics to emphasize the great advancement in this technology, thus bringing to the analyst a relevant and cost-effective solution to their chromatography challenges.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application- USEPA Method 8260 Using EST Purge-and-Trap and GCMS-QP2010S (EST)
We analyzed the diluted gelatin for food and the diluted gelatin with chromium by furnace method. Each gelatin was diluted 500 times with distilled water. The concentration of added chromium was 4 ppb considering Chinese standard (2mg/kg).
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Dashi (Japanese Soup Stock)
A GC-MS is useful for the evaluation of electrolytic solutions and for analyzing degradation due to repeated charging and discharging. This datasheet introduces a sample analysis of an electrolytic solution from a lithium ion rechargeable battery using a GC-MS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Measurement of Ethanol in Blood Using Headspace GCMS (Japan)
Here, we introduce an example in which the Co-Sense for impurities System is applied to a drug impurity analysis, making it possible to conduct measurement analysis quickly and easily through automation of the sample preparation.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of a Benzodiazephine-Based Drug Using GCMS (Japan)
Two kinds of miso soup (red miso and white miso) were treated with EZ:faast. Norvaline was added as an internal standard.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Flavor/Fragrance Analysis by Fast GCMS (Japan)
Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter responsible for feelings of mood and cognitive functions, sleep, and appetite. Many pharmaceuticals target pathways related to serotonin. Analytical methods to measure serotonin are needed to study the effects of this important neurotransmitter.
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GCMS Application - GCMS Forensic Toxicological Database, Part 2 (Japan)
Of the organic photovoltaic cells that have been under extensive development as next-generation solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells are perhaps the closest to commercialization today. These types of solar cells are expected to be produced inexpensively. Commercialization will of course be contingent on sufficient photoelectric conversion efficiency, but equally important will be their endurance in withstanding degradation over time.
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Analysis of Detergent in Diesel Fuel by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
Despite initial concerns regarding volatilization of the detergent, high-temperature GCMS chromatographic analysis is a valid technique for determining the concentration of detergent in diesel fuel. The goal of a lower quantitation limit of 125 ppm was exceeded by demonstrating linearity down to 50 ppm.
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Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 2
Application Book, Fast GC/GCMS, Volume 2. Fast GC and GC/MS using narrow-bore columns: Principles and Applications, Basics of separation in fast GC
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Analysis of Gasoline Utilizing a GC × GC-MS System
When petrochemical products such as gasoline are analyzed using a GC-MS, a number of paraffin hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons are detected. Since their peaks overlap, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the respective components can be difficult. Analysis of such samples using a GC × GC-MS system, on the other hand, results in comprehensive 2-dimensional separation, simplifying qualitative and quantitative analysis.
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Analysis of Opioids Using Isotope Dilution with GCMS-TQ8030 GC/MS/MS
This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of a common narcotic, hydrocodone, using the isotope dilution technique paired with the specificity of the MRM analysis mode of the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS. Internal standard calibration of codeine and oxycodone was also included in the study.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Quantitative Screening of PCDD and PCDF in Foodstuff and Animal Feed Using GCMS-TQ8030 (SEG)
This data sheet reports batch analysis methods for 420 compounds (approximately 1,200 transitions) using Smart Pesticides Database and Smart MRM.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Simultaneous Analysis Method for 420 Residual Pesticide Compounds in Food Using GCMS-TQ8040 (Japan)
The potential of this approach is demonstrated in the actual study by analyzing 360 pesticides in apple QuEChERS extract in less than 10 minutes.
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Determination of contaminants in wine using GCMS and ICP mass spectrometry
ICP-MS is a fast and reliable tool for determination of heavy metals in wine and the HS-trap GC/MS system is a high sensitivity method for monitoring trichloroanisole in wine in order to guarantee the highest level of quality and safety according to the European wine regulations.
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Simplified Cannabis Terpene Profiling by GCMS
Terpene and terpenoid compounds are naturally occurring aromatic compounds that give cannabis its unique flavor and fragrance. Aside from their aromatic properties, terpenes have advantageous health benefits. They also have a synergistic relationship with cannabinoids, which further enhance the therapeutic effect of THC. Terpene analyses were conducted using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010SE single quadrupole mass spectrometer with the HS-20 headspace autosampler for sample introduction.
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Evaluation of Sample Pretreatment Procedures for the Determination of Phthalate Esters in Child Care Products and Children’s Toys by Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA-USA) requires testing of child care products and toys in the US for specific phthalate esters by GCMS. The CPSC test method specifies solvent extraction and subsequent GCMS analysis for specific phthalate esters. In this study, analysis by pyrolysis GCMS was investigated as a technique to simplify sample preparation and improve analytical precision. The analyses were conducted on a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with a Frontier PY-2020is pyrolyzer, shown in the figure below.
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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Saliva
The National Institute on Drugs of Abuse [NIDA] and The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMSHA] determine appropriate detection levels for GCMS confirmation
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Analysis of Detergent Residues on Clothing Using DMI-GC/MS
This datasheet investigates the effectiveness of using GC/MS to analyze non-volatile matrices, by using DMI-GC/MS to analyze detergent residues on clothing.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Vegetable Juice
Amino acids contained in vegetable juice were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Miso Soup
Amino acids contained in miso soup were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Green Tea
Amino acids contained in green tea were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in a Sports Drink
Amino acids contained in a sports drink were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Soy Sauce
Amino acids contained in soy sauce were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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Analysis of Adipose Fatty Acids in Human Serum
Adipose extracted from human serum was converted to fatty acid methyl ester, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system. This analysis was performed in conjunction with representatives from Shimane University.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in a Grain of Rice
Amino acids contained in a grain of rice were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Dashi (Japanese Soup Stock)
Amino acids contained in dashi were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Alcohol
Amino acids contained in alcohol were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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Analysis of Inorganic Gases and Hydrocarbons by GC-MS
This shows an example of analyzing inorganic and hydrocarbons gases using a PLOT (porous layer open tubular) column.
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Analysis of Glycolysis Metabolites in Human Embryonic Stem Cells using GC-MS/MS
This Application Data Sheet presents the results of the analysis of glycolysis metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem cells using an MRM method file included in the Smart Metabolites Database.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (Japan)
When petrochemical products such as gasoline are analyzed using a GC-MS, a number of paraffin hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons are detected. Since their peaks overlap, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the respective components can be difficult. Analysis of such samples using a GC × GC-MS system, on the other hand, results in comprehensive 2-dimensional separation, simplifying qualitative and quantitative analysis.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Soft Drinks Utilizing Headspace GCMS (Japan)
Paint thinners, which are utilized to lessen the viscosity of paints, consist primarily of toluene, and contain other substances such as ethyl acetates and alcohols. As these compounds have anesthetic and excitatory properties, “paint sniffing”, or abuse by intentional inhalation, has become a social problem, leading to regulations targeting the inhalation of paint thinner for such purposes. Since GC-MS systems are often utilized in place of GC in scientific crime detection, this experiment investigated the ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethyl acetate, toluene, and methanol.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using GCMS (Japan)
This Application Datasheet introduces evaluation results with respect to quantification in the GC/MS analysis of sulfonate esters, so-called PGI (potential genotoxic impurities), in active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Please refer to GC-MS Application Datasheet No. 18, “Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,” for the analysis conditions and the total ion current chromatogram for the sulfonate esters.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Methods 8260C and 8270D on a Single GCMS without Changing Columns
The Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 SE, with its inert, low-nickel source, was used for analysis of a wide range of compound classes using hydrogen as the carrier gas without requiring any changes to the instrument hardware. Chromatography with hydrogen carrier gas was excellent, and retention times were easily reproduced using the constant linear velocity feature of the GCMSsolutions software. MS tuning was essentially equivalent, and passed all acceptance criteria with both hydrogen and helium.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Simultaneous Analysis of 66 Pesticides by GCMS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas (Japan)
Helium gas is typically used as a carrier gas for GC-MS. However, in recent years, the insufficient supply of helium gas and its increase in price have caused problems, prompting global efforts to address these problems. The use of hydrogen gas as an alternative carrier gas holds promise for addressing the issue. This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the analysis of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
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"GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 624 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Wastewater"
This application note describes a GCMS purge-and-trap (P & T) method validation study conducted to evaluate operating conditions for the existing US EPA Method 624 VOC list, using updated technology and advanced GCMS instrumentation. GCMS instrument operating conditions are provided which bring the method in line with capabilities provided by contemporary laboratory equipment. This application note provides calibration results across three different ranges, complete MDL and Precision and Accuracy studies at multiple concentrations, and analysis of an independent laboratory VOC reference standard and real-world samples.
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Introduction of a New Fast Scanning, Highly Sensitive Single Quadrupole GCMS: A Platform for Modern Chromatography Techniques
A quadrupole GCMS system, capable of scanning 20,000amu/sec and 100Hz, has been developed that meets the data acquisition requirements of the comprehensive GCxGCMSand Fast-GC techniques. In this study, complex natural product extracts will be analyzed that demonstrate the utility of this new GCMS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Alcohol (Japan)
Amino acids contained in dashi were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in a Grain of Rice (Japan)
Amino acids contained in alcohol were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Adipose Fatty Acids in Human Serum (Japan)
Amino acids contained in a grain of rice were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed with a GC-MS system.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of an Electrolytic Solution from a Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery (Japan)
This datasheet introduces a sample measurement of Decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca BDE), a brominated flame retardant, using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Least Volatile Compounds through Direct Sample Introduction (Japan)
This datasheet investigates the ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethanol in blood.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Soy Sauce (Japan)
Amino acids contained in green tea were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in a Sports Drink (Japan)
Amino acids contained in soy sauce were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Metaboloic Components Contained in Puffer Fish Blood Serum (Japan)
This article introduces the analysis of sulfonic acid esters utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (Japan)
With the headspace method, samples are inserted into vials, and the headspace gas is introduced into a GC column, enabling simple measurement of fragrant components. This article introduces the results of the measurement of various soft drinks using Headspace GC-MS.
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GCMS Application - Analysis of Chelate Compounds Through Direct Sample Introduction (Japan)
Benzodiazepine drugs are commonly used in sleeping aids and tranquilizers, and sometimes in crimes or suicide. Therefore, these chemical substances are often analyzed by forensic laboratories for criminal or academic investigations. This datasheet shows the results from using GC-MS to measure 9 types of benzodiazepine drugs.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Metabolites in Rat Urine Using MRM via GC/MS/MS (Japan)
This Application Datasheet introduces results from the measurement of metabolites extracted from rat urine, utilizing Scan/MRM mode with 5 component MRM measurements added to a Scan measurement method from the GC/MS Metabolites Spectral Database.
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Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Baby Foods Using a Triple-Quadrupole GC/MS/MS System
A Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 system operated in the MRM mode was shown to be a rapid, sensitive, and selective technique for analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in baby foods. Reliable, precise measurements were obtained at 1 ng/mL for all 24 OP pesticides. The Shimadzu AART function and GC/MS/MS Pesticide Database simplified development of the MRM method.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System - TBBPA and BPBPE
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing TBBPA and BPBPE in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (3) - HBCDD
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing HBCDD in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Activie Pharmaceutical Ingredients (2)
This Application Datasheet introduces evaluation results with respect to quantification in the GC/MS analysis of sulfonate esters, so-called PGI (potential genotoxic impurities), in active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Please refer to GC-MS Application Datasheet No. 18, “Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,” for the analysis conditions and the total ion current chromatogram for the sulfonate esters.
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Analysis of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by GC-MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas
This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the analysis of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
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Simultaneous Analysis of 66 Pesticides by GC-MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas
This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the simultaneous analysis of a standard sample of 66 pesticides using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
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Analysis of a Benzodiazepine-Based Drug Using GC-MS
Benzodiazepine drugs are commonly used in sleeping aids and tranquilizers, and sometimes in crimes or suicide. Therefore, these chemical substances are often analyzed by forensic laboratories for criminal or academic investigations. This datasheet shows the results from using GC-MS to measure 9 types of benzodiazepine drugs.
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Analysis of Gasoline Using a GC-MS
Regular gasoline was analyzed utilizing a GC-MS. To minimize gasoline fuel consumption, the average boiling point is adjusted to about 100oC. In addition, as adjustment to the optimal boiling point depends on the air temperature, the composition will differ between summer and winter, and between cold areas like Hokkaido and hot areas like Okinawa.
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Analysis of Soft Drinks Utilizing Headspace GC-MS
With the headspace method, samples are inserted into vials, and the headspace gas is introduced into a GC column, enabling simple measurement of fragrant components. This article introduces the results of the measurement of various soft drinks using Headspace GC-MS.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System
This datasheet introduces a sample measurement of Decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca BDE), a brominated flame retardant, using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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Analysis of Adipose Fatty Acids in Blood Utilizing a GC × GC-MS System
This application datasheet investigates the separation of the C18 fatty acids: oleic acid and gammalinolenic acid. These substances could not be separated using only a 1-dimensional column, but could be separated 2-dimensionally using a GC × GC-MS system.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Metabolites in Serum Using GC-MS/MS (Japan)
This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem (ES) cells utilizing the GC/MS Metabolite Database Ver. 2, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as serum, urine, and cells.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Determination of Fatty-acid Composition of Lipids in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS (Japan)
Using LCMS-8040, simultaneous detection method of eicosanoids and PAF was developed. 54 MRM transitions for 50 eicosanoids and PAF (platelet activation factor) were optimized. Limit of quantitation for several targets was in the subpicogram range.
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Analysis of Impurities in Tests for Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals Using GC-MS
This Data Sheet presents an example of the analysis of unknown peaks in a test for residual solvents in pharmaceuticals, using analysis columns that complies with USP467 Procedure A for residual solvents, utilizing the Shimadzu HS-20 Trap headspace sampler, which features a trapping function, and the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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Analysis of Inorganic Gas by GC-MS
Currently, inorganic gases are typically analyzed using a gas chromatograph – thermal conductivity detector system. This method usually involves using a packed column as the separation column. If a PLOT (porous layer open tubular) column with packing particles fixed to the column interior wall is used instead, however, similar results can be achieved using a gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system.
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Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water-based Paints and Varnishes Using GC-MS
A general GC-MS method was developed, using the Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, for determination of 35 VOCs commonly found in water-based paints and varnishes. A wide range of calibration was established with good correlative coefficient, as well as good repeatability. The results even demonstrated the capability of using this instrument for the determination of compounds which were not calibrated, in preparation to fulfil the requirements of any possible future regulations.
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GCMS Application 3rd Party - PAH and PCB in Environmental Samples by GC-MSMS (PEAK, SEG)
This article introduces an example of using a simultaneous Scan/MRM measurement method created from the Smart Forensic Database to measure a whole-blood sample, and then applying the GC/MS Forensic Toxicology Database to the scan data obtained.
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Automated Preparation of Calibration Curve Samples in the Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods
The AOC-6000 multifunctional autosampler is equipped with a function to automatically exchange syringes with different capacities, as well as a function to stir the samples. This Application Data Sheet reports on the automated preparation of a series of standard pesticide samples to which an internal standard and pseudo matrix were added using these functions, and the results of their analysis with the triple quad GCMS-TQ8040.
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Analysis and Quantitation of Cocaine on Currency Using GC-MS/MS
This application note describes a method for extraction, identification, and quantitation of cocaine on paper money from nine different geographical areas around the globe, including five samples from the United States, using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8040 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) monitoring mode.
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Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Milk Using SPME and GC-MS/MS
This application note describes development of a fully automated SPME extraction method combined with GC-MS/MS analysis for detection and quantitation of OP pesticides in a complex milk matrix. The Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8040 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer used for this application note is shown in Figure 1. The SPME method development and validation were fully automated using the Shimadzu AOC-6000 Multifunctional Autosampler.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - USEPA Methods 8260 and 8270 by GCMS-QP2010SE With Twin Line MS Kit (SSI)
USEPA Methods 8260C (volatile) and 8270D (semi-volatile) typically require dissimilar chromatographic columns with incompatible maximum temperatures. Historically, laboratories performing these analyses have found it necessary to allocate separate GCMS instrumentation for the two analysis modes, or perform frequent reconfiguration (column changing) to run these methods on a single GCMS unit. Breaking the MS vacuum to change analytical columns is time-consuming and inefficient, however productivity can be improved significantly using the Shimadzu Twin Line MS Kit. With this configuration, the user can easily switch between applications without breaking vacuum to change the analytical column.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Gasoline Utilizing a GCxGCMS System (Japan)
Direct sample introduction (DI) is a method of directly introducing a sample to an ion source without passing it through a gas chromatograph (GC). DI is an effective method for mass spectral measurements of synthesized materials. The Shimadzu GC-MS can use direct sample introduction without having to remove the column. This application datasheet introduces the results of measurements of vitamin C and reserpine, which are usually difficult to analyze with a GC.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Fatty Acids in Butter Using GCxGCMS (Japan)
GC x GC systems use the latest chromatographic technology to achieve high-level separation through direct connection of 2 different types of columns. This method is optimal for the separation of target substances from complicated matrices that are problematic for ordinary GC or GC-MS systems, and for analysis by type from 2- dimensional chromatogram patterns. It can be used for analysis in a variety of fields, including natural products, foodstuffs, fragrances, environmental science, and petro chemistry.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using Twin Line GCMS (Japan)
Reductive cleavage of azo radicals from azo dyes and azo pigments comprising azo radicals (-N=N-) can form aromatic amines that are suspected carcinogens. Of these aromatic amines, 22 are designated as specific aromatic amines in Europe (EN 14362:2003) and 24 in China (GB/T 17592-2006), and the use of azo dyes and pigments that form these specific aromatic amines are regulated. The total ion current chromatogram (TIC) obtained from using GC-MS to measure a standard sample of the specific aromatic amines is shown here.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (4) - TBBPA and BPBPE (Japan)
The analysis of eyeliner and museum quality paint are used to demonstrate the capabilities of a system consisting of an EGA/PY-3030D pyrolyzer and a GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The eyeliner was first analyzed using evolved gas analysis (EGA-MS). The EGA thermogram shows that the eyeliner contains compounds with a wide range of properties – from volatile organic solvents to nonvolatile polymers. The compositional analysis of each temperature zone on the EGA thermogram was determined using a high-resolution capillary column interfaced to the GC-MS. The high temperature pyrolysis of an ancient mural paint illustrates of the value of pyrolysis-GC-MS to characterize a material of interest.
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GCMS Application - High-Sensitivity Analysis of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Wine Using Headspace-Trap GC/MS (HS-20, Japan)
The European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) has reported their results on evaluating the validity of residual pesticide analysis utilizing GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS1). In their report, the measurement of 66 pesiticides using GC-MS/MS was recommended. This data sheet presents selected results of analysis of these pesticides using the triple quadrupole GCMS-TQ8030.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Aroclors in Human Blood Serum by GCMS-TQ8030 (SSI)
The newly-designed capillary SR-Cell (Sensitivity and Resolution Cell) has been adopted for the SPD-M30A high-sensitivity photodiode array detector in the Nexera SR Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatograph. By optimizing the cell's optical path length and diameter, both low noise levels and high sensitivity have been achieved. This article introduces the highspeed, high-sensitivity simultaneous analysis of artificial colorings using the Nexera SR UHPLC.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Inorganic Gases and Hydrocarbons by GC-MS (Japan)
Currently, inorganic gases are typically analyzed using a gas chromatograph – thermal conductivity detector system. This method usually involves using a packed column as the separation column. If a PLOT (porous layer open tubular) column with packing particles fixed to the column interior wall is used instead, however, similar results can be achieved using a gas chromatograph – mass spectrometer (GC-MS) system.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Pesticides in Citrus Oil Using a Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 (SSI)
Here, we have developed an online-SPE method to considerably shorten the pre-treatment time. In addition to optimisation of the extraction method, chromatographic separation was optimised to decrease ion-suppression and isobaric interference. Compound ionisation was enhanced using a new heated ESI (HESI) source on the LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.
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GCMS Application 3rd Party - Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardant in a Waste Plastics by Pyrolysis TD-GCMS Technique (Frontier)
ASTM D7823-13 is based on thermal desorption (TD) – GC/MS. The method is suitable for an extended list of phthalates in a wide range of polymeric materials. The entire analytical sequence is performed in a single step: a known weight of sample (i.e., a known weight of solid sample or a known volume of a quantitative solution is placed in a sample cup which in turn is placed in the auto sampler carousel.)
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - GCMS-1405 Shimadzu Guide to BFB Tuning 11112014.pdf
For the element analysis, ICP-OES Spectrometry using a simultaneous instrument is the “state of the art” tool for the daily routine in quality control of wine samples. The ICPE-9820 in dual view configuration is flexible enough to achieve calibration ranges in axial view in ppb level concentrations and at the same time high concentration levels of Boron, Potassium, Sodium and others in ppm scale in radial observation as well.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - GCMS-1406 Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 624 11172014.pdf
Trenbolone and ethynyl estradiol were optimized on column on the LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in APCI positive and negative mode with polarity switching. Gradient LC conditions were applied to detect 50 pg on column with at least a signal to noise (S/N) ratio > 100 for both analytes.
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MALDI-7090 Application: UV Laser Source Cleaning - TrueClean (Kratos)
Here we present a comparison of the results of individual analyses of PCBs and PAHs from soil samples with single-quadrupole GC-MS and a triple-quadrupole GC-MS (TQ-GCMS). The use of hydrogen carrier gas is, however, still a work in progress for the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) optimization for the TQ-GCMS.
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Improvement of ASTM D-5769 by GCMS High Concentration Tuning and Automated Data Processing
Method ASTM D-5769 is a standard GCMS method to determine aromatics in finished motor gasoline or ethanol blends. However, the intrinsic high sensitivity of mass spectrometry usually gives rise to a limited linear range that makes it difficult to meet method requirements. GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, a new single transmission quadruple GCMS, allows for tuning the instrument in a “high concentration” mode that is suitable for ASTM D-5769 type of analysis without making any hardware compromises. In addition, newly improved Shimadzu aromatics report software is now capable of conducting automated data acquisition, processing and reporting. These new features have greatly enhanced method robustness and efficiency, providing a total solution of running ASTM D-5769.
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Polymer Analysis Using TGA-GC/MS with CI
In mass analysis, a sample is ionized, the mass numbers are measured and qualitative analysis is performed on the basis of the obtained mass spectra. The ionization methods include electronic impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI).
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Analysis of 2-Alkylcyclobutanones by GC/MS: Detection of Irradiated Foods
In this Application News, we introduce an example of fat can be extracted (beef, pork, chicken, salmon, and Camembert cheese , etc . )
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Analysis of Compounds Related to Musty Odor Regulated in Drinking Water Using Headspace - GC/MS
This Application News pertains to the measurement of substances (2-methylisoborneol and geosmin) responsible for the musty (mold-related) odor in tap water.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application Solutions brochure
A general interest brochure that explains the product package solutions available for different application areas such as Food, Environment, Life Science, and Forensics.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Methyl Laurate Content in Biodiesel Blends and Multidimensional GC/GCMS (Pittcon 2010) (Japan, SSI)
Hops, a major ingredient in beer, contain components called alpha acids (humulones) and beta acids (lupulones). Through the brewing process, alpha acids are converted to iso-alpha acids (isohumulones) which are bitter components of beer. Beta acids are said to influence the bitterness balance. This data sheet shows results of a high-speed analysis of six alpha acids and beta acids.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Children's Toys Using GCMS (Japan)
As the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment demands the highly efficient resolution of multiple components, long sub-2 µm columns or multiple columns are often used. Such cases demand a UHPLC system with a high system pressure tolerance. The 130 MPa pressure tolerance of the Shimadzu Nexera can safely and flexibly accommodate such demands. This Application Data Sheet introduces the ultra-high-resolution simultaneous analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using Nexera with two Phenomenex Kinetex columns.
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EPA Method 8270D Analysis Using Narrow-bore GC Columns and Fast Data Acquisition with a Quadrupole GCMS System
The goal of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new, sensitive, fast-scanning GCMS system to optimize productivity for EPA Method 8270D, while maintaining the strict QC measures of the method, optimizing sensitivity, and expanding the dynamic range. A new, sensitive, fast-scanning quadrupole GCMS system was used to significantly reduce the run time for a mixture of 81 analytes. Excellent sensitivity and chromatographic resolution were demonstrated with a significantly reduced run/cycle time.
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GCMS Application - GCMS High Sensitivity Technology Using Overdrive Lens (Japan)
For highly sensitive and selective determination of organic acids, “Postcolumn pH-buffered electric conductivity detection” was developed by Shimadzu Corporation. After separating organic acids by ionexclusion column, pH-buffered solution is added to the column eluent constantly in order to utterly ionize the organic acids which are weak anions. This technique greatly improves the selectivity of organic acids in complicated samples.
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GC-MS High Sensitivity Technology Using Overdrive Lens
The effects of increased signal intensity and improved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were investigated by eliminating noise with the installation of an overdrive lens in the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, and verifying the effectiveness using simulation and experimentation by GC-MS. The results confirmed that S/N improved through application of the optimum voltage on the overdrive lens. In addition, it was verified from the results of analysis of 5 ppb chlorpyrifos-methyl by the full-scan method that high-sensitivity analysis is possible using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with this technology.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Detergent Residues on Clothing Using DMI-GCMS (Japan)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are byproducts of burning fuels, such as mineral oils, and are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. These compounds are regulated in many countries as harmful pollutants in environmental water and the atmosphere. In Japan, the "Measuring method manual for toxic air pollutants" and "Measuring method manual for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust gas emissions" were revised in March 2011. In addition, environmental standards, including fine particle regulations (PM2.5) and fine particles, can include PAHs. Consequently, there is an increasing need to measure PAHs. This application datasheet introduces an example of measuring 36 PAHs.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Aroma Components in Peach Juice by GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet and Mono Trap (Japan)
This datasheet shows the results where volatile organic compounds in automobile cabin air were adsorbed using Tenax TA (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide), a sorbent material commonly used for atmospheric analysis, and analyzed by TD-GC-MS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (5) - Analysis of Alkyl Halides (Japan)
A sample consisting of serum extract from a patient administered with psychotropic drugs was analyzed by GC/MS; identification and semiquantitation of the substances were conducted using the “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”. All three administered substances were identified, and their semi-quantitative values were calculated. The results indicated that it is possible to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively determine drugs using this database.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters in Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (1) - PBBBs and PBDEs (Japan)
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing seven phthalate esters in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Utility of a System Consisting of EGA/PY-3030 and GCMS-QP2010 Ultra (Japan)
EDX is suitable for screening analysis as it permits non-destructive, fast and simple analysis. Although FAAAS and ICP-AES require pretreatment procedures such as the preparation of solutions, they permit more precise analyses to be conducted. FAAS has the advantages of low running cost and eay operation, making it suitable for routine analysis of 1-5 elements. IC-AES permits multi-element simultaneous analysis as well as qualitative analysis, and further extends its applicability beyond routine analysis to research and development, etc.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (3) - HBCDD (Japan)
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing TBBPA and BPBPE in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Sugar and Sterol Analysis in Human Body Fluids on a True Dual Column GCMS System (Japan)
In this Technical Report, we used the LCMS-8030 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer to evaluate whether or not 10 pesticide compounds used to spike a matrix at 10 ppb each could be detected automatically by using generic peak detection method in the screening for 176 pesticides using 1 msec pause and 5 msec dwell times.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - GCxGC Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC (Japan)
The Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 is a dual-column system in which one ion source accommodates both analytical columns. Due to its large pumping capacity, it is possible to install two GC capillary columns simultaneously in the Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010. This makes column change with significant down-time of the instrument unnecessary. Both analytical assays described above were successfully validated on the dual-column system (with both columns installed).
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Methods 8260C and 8270D on a Single GCMS without Changing Columns
The Twin Line MS Kit allows the user to install two chromatographic columns in the same mass spectrometer, providing greater flexibility for those laboratories wishing to perform volatile and semi-volatile analyses on a single GCMS unit without breaking the MS vacuum. This configuration incorporates two injection ports and two chromatographic columns simultaneously connected to a single MS. With this configuration, the user can easily switch between volatile and semi-volatile applications without venting the MS vacuum system to change the analytical column.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Pesticides in Food Matrix Using QuEChERS by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS (Japan)
Helium gas is typically used as a carrier gas for GC-MS. However, in recent years, the insufficient supply of helium gas and its increase in price have caused problems, prompting global efforts to address these problems. The use of hydrogen gas as an alternative carrier gas holds promise for addressing the issue. This data sheet presents the application of hydrogen carrier gas to the simultaneous analysis of a standard sample of 66 pesticides using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a Dual Inlet Turbo Molecular Pump.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by GC/MS Using Hydrogen Carrier Gas (Japan)
This technical note illustrates the ability to characterize antibody aggregates by covalently stabilizing them with cross-linking reagents, fractionating the cross-linked aggregates by SEC and finally analyzing the fractions using the AXIMA MegaTOF.
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using Twin Line GC-MS
To obtain highly reliable data from analyzing residual pesticides in foods by GC requires confirmation tests using columns with different liquid phases. In contrast, with GC-MS, confirmation is possible by using not only retention times, but also m/z values. Therefore, normally only one type of column is used for tests. However, due to the increased number of pesticides and the diversification in substances subject to inspection, users are demanding higher reliability by using columns with different liquid phases, even for GC-MS analysis. Therefore, a Twin Line MS Kit, which enables the installation of two types of columns with different liquid phases in one MS, without the use of splitters or flow restrictors, was used to analyze residual pesticides in food.
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Paint Thinner Analysis Utilizing Headspace GC-MS
Paint thinners, which are utilized to lessen the viscosity of paints, consist primarily of toluene, and contain other substances such as ethyl acetates and alcohols. As these compounds have anesthetic and excitatory properties, “paint sniffing”, or abuse by intentional inhalation, has become a social problem, leading to regulations targeting the inhalation of paint thinner for such purposes [1, 2]. Since GC-MS systems are often utilized in place of GC in scientific crime detection, this experiment investigated the ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethyl acetate, toluene, and methanol.
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Measurement of Ethanol in Blood Using Headspace GC-MS
Ethanol in blood is analyzed in the context of scientific crime detection with respect to traffic accidents caused by drinking, and violence, injuries, and homicides associated with alcohol[1,2]. The concentration of ethanol in blood is an important factor in understanding the extent of intoxication. Under the Road Traffic Act and the Order for Enforcement of the Road Traffic Act, an individual is considered to be under the influence of alcohol if the blood ethanol level is 0.3 mg/mL or more. While packed column GC-FID and capillary GCFID are recognized measurement methods, a GC-MS is often used instead. This datasheet investigates the ability of Headspace GC-MS to measure ethanol in blood.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Metabolites Extracted from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS (Japan)
This application data sheet introduces the results of an investigation of sensitivity based on the EI-SIM, PCI-SIM, EI-MRM, and PCI-MRM methods. In addition, in Application Data Sheet No. 86, we introduce the results of an investigation of separation from impurities in the analysis of fatty acids in foods.
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GCMS Application - Analysis of Metabolites in Human Serum Using GCMS (Japan)
Comprehensive GC (GC×GC) falls into the category of multidimensional techniques, which achieve high separation power using two different type of columns. Since GC×GC requires the fast detector, more attention was devoted to TOF as its detector. The present study has confirmed the validity of the novel fast quadrupole MS system for reliable quantification purposes in GC×GC by the analysis of allergens in a commercial fragrance.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application 3rd Party - GCC 2013: Measuring Halogenated Disinfection By-Products With Mass Spectrometry by Selective Ionization and Specific Detection (UTA)
Here we develop GCMS methods to analyze for halogenated DBPs, specifically trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), develop GCMS methods to analyze for nitrosamines, an emerging class of DBPs of interest, collect surface water used for municipal drinking water across North Texas
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Opiods Using Isotope Dilution (SSI)
This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of 36 pesticides from various chemical classes in a QuEChERS extract of baby food using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS (Figure 1). Results were evaluated for calibration linearity, analytical precision, and accuracy in a baby food matrix. Selectivity as a function of variable mass spectral resolution settings on the two sets of quadrupoles, Q1 and Q3, is also discussed.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Inorganic Gas by GC-MS (Japan)
Because an estimated 1 to 2 percent of the population has allergies, in 2003 the EU began regulating the use of perfumes and flavour materials that can cause allergic reactions. These substances are restricted to 0.01 % for cosmetic products that are rinsed away (such as shampoo) and 0.001 % for products that are left applied (such as hand creams). Due to these regulations, manufacturers now must quantitatively analyze the concentration of such allergens.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Impurities in Tests for Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals Using GC-MS (Japan)
This study present analysis condition for 25 VOCs covering a range of volatility, using static headspace as the sample introduction technique, with the GC/MS/MS operated in the MRM mode for detection and quantitation. Use of a short, narrow-bore capillary column permitted analysis of 8 samples per hour, or approximately one sample every 7 minutes.
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Analysis of Pesticides in Baby Foods Using a GCMS-TQ8030 GC/MS/MS, Part II
This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of 36 pesticides from various chemical classes in a QuEChERS extract of baby food using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS. Results were evaluated for calibration linearity, analytical precision, and accuracy in a baby food matrix. Selectivity as a function of variable mass spectral resolution settings on the two sets of quadrupoles, Q1 and Q3, is also discussed.
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Analysis of Pesticides in Citrus Oil Using a Shimadzu GCMS-TQ 8030
Detection of pesticides was demonstrated at low ng/mL (ppb) levels in orange oil using a Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 GC-MS/MS. Calibration was conducted using the matrix-matched internal standard procedure. Nine calibration standards were prepared and analyzed in diluted organic orange oil over the range of 5-5000 ng/mL (ppb), although some compounds could not be accurately quantitated at the low concentrations due to matrix interference. Precision and accuracy were demonstrated by replicate analyses of matrix spiked aliquots at 5, 10 and 50 ng/mL.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Ethylene in Food Using GC/MS (Japan)
Continuous and stable measurement of TOC in high-pollution samples such as the influent water in wastewater treatment facilities is not easy. In particular, paper mill wastewater, in addition to containing large amounts of pulp residue, provides an environment that facilitates microorganism proliferation. This leads to such problems as obstructed flow lines and the formation of biofilms at surfaces that are exposed to direct contact with these organisms, such as at water sampling points. Here, using the online TOC-4200, we introduce an example of continuous measurement of paper mill wastewater having such characteristics.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 524.3 and 524.4 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water (SSI)
Due to advances in analytical instrumentation the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) introduced a new drinking water method in June 2009. US EPA Method 524.31 allows laboratories to modify purge and trap and GCMS conditions in order to accommodate instrumental advances and shorten sample preparation time. The US EPA also investigated the option of using nitrogen as the purge gas in an additional drinking water method, US EPA Method 524.42. This application note will compare analytical results when using helium and nitrogen purge gases.
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GCMS-QP2020 Application - High-Sensitivity Analysis of Phenols (Japan)
With the sudden rise in the price of helium in recent years, carrier gases that can be used in place of helium are sought after. Hydrogen and nitrogen are potential substitute gases for helium. Though nitrogen is safer than hydrogen and easier to handle, there is a reduction in the sensitivity compared to helium and that makes it difficult to maintain analytical precision for trace analyses. The GCMS-QP2020, however, features a large-volume differential vacuum system that is able to minimize the reduction in sensitivity caused by using nitrogen as a carrier gas. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the advantages of the GCMS-QP2020 by reporting the results of analyzing phenols in drinking water using nitrogen as a carrier gas.
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High-Sensitivity Analysis of Phenols in Drinking Water Using Nitrogen Carrier Gas
With the sudden rise in the price of helium in recent years, carrier gases that can be used in place of helium are sought after. Hydrogen and nitrogen are potential substitute gases for helium. Though nitrogen is safer than hydrogen and easier to handle, there is a reduction in the sensitivity compared to helium and that makes it difficult to maintain analytical precision for trace analyses. The GCMS-QP2020, however, features a large-volume differential vacuum system that is able to minimize the reduction in sensitivity caused by using nitrogen as a carrier gas. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the advantages of the GCMS-QP2020 by reporting the results of analyzing phenols in drinking water using nitrogen as a carrier gas.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Simplified Cannabis Terpene Profiling by GCMS
Terpene and terpenoid compounds are naturally occurring aromatic compounds that give cannabis its unique flavor and fragrance. Aside from their aromatic properties, terpenes have advantageous health benefits. They also have a synergistic relationship with cannabinoids, which further enhance the therapeutic effect of THC. Terpene analyses were conducted using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010SE single quadrupole mass spectrometer with the HS-20 headspace autosampler for sample introduction
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Analysis of Food Additives – Food Antioxidants
This Application News introduces the results of analysis of the antioxidants BHA, BHT and TBHQ using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The antioxidants were added to a butter sample, and then extracted using a simple pretreatment process. In this analysis, the backflush technique was employed to prevent high-boiling point substances in the actual sample from being introduced into the detector.
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Application of Metabolomics Techniques using LC/MS and GC/MS Profiling Analysis of Green Tea Leaves
This Application Note presents the profiling of green tea leaves as an example of one application of the metabolome analysis technique using LC/MS and GC/MS. A search of the substances believed to play roles in product quality was conducted, and a quality prediction model was constructed based on the results.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC/MS
This Application News introduces an example of GC/MS analysis of 6 phthalate esters in toys. For an example of GC-FID analysis of the same sample, refer to Shimadzu Application News No. G275 "Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC-FID."
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Gasoline (Japan)
GC x GC, the latest in chromatographic technology, achieves high-level separation through direct connection of 2 different types of columns. The following shows an example of light oil analysis using a GC  GC system.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Miso Soup (Japan)
Two kinds of vegetable juice were treated with EZ:faast. Norvaline was added as an internal standard.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Activie Pharmaceutical Ingredients (2) (Japan)
This datasheet presents the results from applying the THM-GC/MS method to characterize complicated samples characteristic to paint from air work.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Characterization of Paint from Art Work Using Automatic Reactive Pyrolysis in the OPTIC-4 Inlet (Japan)
In this Application Datasheet, a chelate with ring-shaped phthalocynanine ligands, which are cross linked to four phthalic imides by nitrogen atoms, is measured using the DI method.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/ MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC/MS)
Here, using flame atomic absorptions method, we introduce an example of analysis of Na and K in a standard sample of Portland cement (211R) obtained from Japan Cement Association to determine their respective concentrations.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
This handbook provides a detailed description of comprehensive GC technology and intends to be a clear reference guide for GCxGC beginners or simply curious readers interested in this amazing newborn branch of chromatography
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - GC/MS/MS Analysis of Pesticides in Drinking Water (Japan)
The SAMHSA drugs of abuse panel requires confirmation of 11 compounds in urine by either gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometery. Methods for these compounds have been developed using the LCMS-8030 and LCMS-8040 consistent with the SAMHSA guidelines for method performance and validation.
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GCMS Application 3rd Party - Pyrolysis Application Guide (Frontier)
This Application Data Sheet presents data obtained using the Shimadzu HS-20 Headspace Sampler and Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus Gas Chromatograph, from Class 1 and Class 2 standard solutions, in accordance with Water-Soluble Articles, Procedure B, in USP <467> Residual Solvents.
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Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (1)
When analyzing medicinal toxicants using GC-MS, the presence of fatty acids and cholesterol, which exist in large quantities in whole blood, can interfere with detection. In fact, profiles for triazolam and etizolam, benzodiazepine psychotropic drugs, overlap with the cholesterol chromatogram, making data analysis difficult with a single GC-MS system.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Effectiveness of Metabolomics Research Using Gas Chromatograph/Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer with High-Sensitivity and High-Speed Scanning (Japan)
Here, we introduce the detection and resolution of unseparated peaks using the high-sensitivity SPD-M30A photodiode array detector in conjunction with the i-PDeA function of LabSolutions.
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Determination of Drugs of Abuse in Oral Fluids
The methods in this booklet are a compilation of work collected from working forensics laboratories. Each of these labs is a Shimadzu customer and all of the data was generated using the GCMS-QP2010 series of instruments. Analytes include: Opiates, Cocaine, BZE, Phencyclidine, THC, Methadone
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Analysis of Aroma Components in Peach Juice by GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet and Mono Trap
The OPTIC-4 is a multimode injection system with a thermal desorption function that enables performing thermal desorption by placing an adsorbent in the injection port liner cup. In combination with the new MonoTrap adsorbent, the system enables analyzing aroma components with high sensitivity.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (1)
This Application Datasheet introduces results from the measurement of metabolites extracted from rat urine, utilizing Scan/MRM mode with 5 component MRM measurements added to a Scan measurement method from the GC/MS Metabolites Spectral Database.
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Analysis of Automobile Cabin Air by Thermal Desorption GCMS Using the OPTIC-4 Multimode Inlet
This datasheet shows the results where volatile organic compounds in automobile cabin air were adsorbed using Tenax TA (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide), a sorbent material commonly used for atmospheric analysis, and analyzed by TD-GC-MS.
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Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid
Dog cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed with a GC-MS system after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University.
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Analysis of Light Oil Using a GC x GC-MS System
GC x GC, the latest in chromatographic technology, achieves high-level separation through direct connection of 2 different types of columns. The following shows an example of light oil analysis using a GC x GC system.
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Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Puffer Fish Blood Serum
Puffer fish blood serum was analyzed with a GC-MS after pretreatment and trimethylsilylation (TMS). This analysis was performed in cooperation with Dr. Shigeo Takenaka from the Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, Osaka Prefecture University.
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Application of Metabolomics Techniques using LCMS and GCMS Profiling Analysis of Green Tea Leaves
This Application Note presents the profiling of green tea leaves as an example of one application of the metabolome analysis technique using LC/MS and GC/MS. A search of the substances believed to play roles in product quality was conducted, and a quality prediction model was constructed based on the results.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Fatty Acids Using PCI-GCMSMS (Japan)
This application data sheet introduces the results of an investigation of separation from impurities based on the EISIM, PCI-SIM, EI-MRM, and PCI-MRM methods. In addition, in Application Data Sheet No. 85, we introduce the results of an investigation of sensitivity in the analysis of fatty acids in foods.
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Analysis of Fatty Acids Using PCI-GCMS/ MS
This application data sheet introduces the results of an investigation of sensitivity based on the EI-SIM, PCI-SIM, EI-MRM, and PCI-MRM methods. In addition, in Application Data Sheet No. 86, we introduce the results of an investigation of separation from impurities in the analysis of fatty acids in foods.
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GC/MS Quantitative Analysis of Allergens in Cosmetics Using OPTIC-4
Because an estimated 1 to 2 percent of the population has allergies, in 2003 the EU began regulating the use of perfumes and flavour materials that can cause allergic reactions. These substances are restricted to 0.01 % for cosmetic products that are rinsed away (such as shampoo) and 0.001 % for products that are left applied (such as hand creams). Due to these regulations, manufacturers now must quantitatively analyze the concentration of such allergens.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Ultra-Fast Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water by Headspace-GC/MS/MS (Japan)
Here, we introduce our evaluation of the sensitivity and linearity obtained in impurity analysis using the new SPD-M30A photodiode array detector with the optional high-sensitivity cell.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Introduction to Environmental Testing in the USA
In this method, we favour GCMS for its orthogonality to LCMS, peak capacity, inlet selectivity and the informing power of full scan spectra. We also wish to exploit GCMSMS for the detection and possible quantitation of target compounds. We believe that the use of simultaneous scan for non-targeted screening and MRM for targeted analysis has the potential to improve workflow and also support profiling and unknown detection in the analysis of urine specimens.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Analysis of Toxicological Substances in Whole Blood Using the Smart Forensic Database (2) (Japan)
This article introduces an example of applying Smart Forensic Database to the analysis of toxicological substances in a whole-blood sample.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Analysis of Metabolites Extracted from Human Embryonic Stem Cells using GC-MS/MS (Japan)
This Application Data Sheet presents the results of the analysis of glycolysis metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem cells using an MRM method file included in the Smart Metabolites Database.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Phthalate Esters Using the PY-Screener (1) (Japan)
This Application Datasheet introduces an example of the analysis of phthalate esters and brominated flame retardants using the Py-Screener.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Phthalate Esters Using the PY-Screener (2) (Japan)
This paper describes an LC-MS/MS method for high-sensitivity simultaneous analysis of the four compounds, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol metabolites, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol.
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A Pyrolysis-GC/MS Screening System for Analysis of Phthalate Esters and Brominated Flame Retardants
The Py-Screener method package was used to investigate the phthalates and PBDEs content in three polymer samples. Experimental conditions and data processing method are described in detail. The LabSolution Insight program was used to review multiple data and flag outliers based on defined QAQC parameters.
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Screening Medical Marijuana for Pesticides by GC-MS/MS
Triple-quadrupole GC-MS/MS operated in MRM mode provides significant sensitivity and selectivity, but method development can be expensive and time consuming. This poster describes streamlined method development process for analysis of pesticide residues in MM using a QuEChERS sample preparation method, followed by GC-MS/MS detection and quantitation.
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GCMS Application - GC/MS Quantitative Analysis of Allergens in Cosmetics Using OPTIC-4 (Japan)
When converting biomass resources into energy or raw chemical materials, it is essential to improve the conversion yield and analyze the reaction process. This sort of analysis requires identifying volatile components; therefore, GCMS systems, with their excellent qualitative capabilities, are useful. This report presents results obtained by adding a solid acid catalyst to an aqueous glucose solution, heating the solution, and then directly analyzing the resulting reaction solution using GC-MS without pretreatment. At present, in the utilization of woody biomass, the cellulose that comprises approximately 60 % to 70 % of the material can be converted to glucose. The analysis of the catalytic reaction presented in this report revealed that primarily hydroxymehylfurfural is further generated from glucose used as a raw material. Hydroxymehylfurfural is a compound with considerable added value as a raw material for pharmaceuticals and chemicals. The analysis also revealed the existence of lactic acid and other low-grade organic acid compounds. In addition, utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a differential vacuum system, enabled acquisition of favorable results even when directly injecting the sample aqueous solution into the GC-MS.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - GC-MS Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products of Glucose in Biomass Research (Japan)
When converting biomass resources into energy or raw chemical materials, it is essential to improve the conversion yield and analyze the reaction process. This sort of analysis requires identifying volatile components; therefore, GCMS systems, with their excellent qualitative capabilities, are useful. This report presents an example of degrading a lignin model compound with a solid acid catalyst in an aqueous solution and directly analyzing the resulting solution using GC-MS without pretreatment. Lignin accounts for 20 % to 30 % of woody biomass. However, it is only weakly reactive because of its strong macromolecular structure, and therefore difficult to degrade. Since anisole, phenol, guaiacol, and other lignin degradation products are useful materials, though, research is progressing into degradation methods that provide a high conversion yield. The analysis of the catalytic degradation reaction presented in this report revealed that guaiacol is mainly produced from lignin model compounds. In addition, utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a differential vacuum system, enabled the acquisition of favorable results even when directly injecting the sample aqueous solution into the GC-MS.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Multi Pesticides Residue analysis in Ayurvedic cough Syrup by GCMS/MS using QuEChERS’ extraction method (India)
Ayurveda is a Sanskrit term, which means ‘science of life’. In India, Ayurveda has been long practiced for medicinal purpose. Majority of it’s preparations involve presence of plants, herbs etc. For the normal, disease-free growth of these plants and herbs, pesticides are widely used. Some of these pesticides can act as toxins to animals & humans when consumed even as residues. Hence, it becomes important to quantitate the pesticides at residual levels in orally consumed preparations, especially which involve plant materials such as Ayurvedic cough syrups. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged & Safe) method was used for extraction and clean-up of the sample followed by analysis using GCMS-TQ8040 Triple Quadrupole (GCMS/MS) system from Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.
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Analysis Using UV/Py -GC/MS System
Methods used for weather-induced degradation testing of polymeric materials include outdoor exposure methods and weather meters, however, measurement using such methods can take weeks or months to complete. Using a system consisting of a combination of a micro-UV irradiator (UV-1047Xe) and a GC/MS makes it possible to observe degradation products generated due to photo/thermal-oxidative degradation processes in a short period of time. Chemical changes in polymeric materials following these degradation processes can also be determined.
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Quantitative Analysis of Stable Isotopes of Glucose in Blood Plasma Using Quadrupole GC-MS
In order to investigate the dynamics of glucose in living organisms, a stable isotope of glucose is administered, and its concentration in blood and tissues is measured with quadrupole GC-MS. In this study, we conducted a comparative investigation of the influence of the derivatization method on the results obtained in the quantitative analysis of D-glucose-13C6 using quadrupole GC-MS. As a result, it was discovered that aldonitrile-pentaacetylation gives a single derivatization product, and in mass separation performed with MS, it yielded good quantitative results with little influence by the natural isotopes of glucose that are present at high concentrations in living organisms.
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Reduction of Emissions and Operating Costs of GCMS Usage with a New Ecology Mode
In this work, daily electrical power consumption was measured and compared to that of typical GCMS operation. Measured power correlated to predicted energy savings and emission reductions very closely. A new feature in GCMS software called “Eco-mode” automatically performs the power- and gas-saving functions at the end of an analytical batch. Eco-mode is used to reduce gas flow and turn off unnecessary heated zones, projecting an estimated 35% in energy savings as well as reduction of carbon emissions by up to 1.1 tons per year.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of a Gas Emitted from Polystyrene Using the Thermal Desorption Method (Japan)
This application datasheet investigates the separation of the C18 fatty acids: oleic acid and gammalinolenic acid. These substances could not be separated using only a 1-dimensional column, but could be separated 2-dimensionally using a GC × GC-MS system.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contaqined in Green Tea (Japan)
Electrolytic solutions in lithium ion rechargeable batteries consist of organic solvents (mainly composed of the carbonate series), electrolytes, and additives. GC-MS systems are effective for the analysis of the denatured components of electrolytic solutions resulting from the charging and discharging of batteries. This article introduces a sample analysis of gas produced from a lithium ion rechargeable battery cell stored for 5 days at 80oC.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Gas Generated from Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery Cells (Japan)
Regular gasoline was analyzed utilizing a GC-MS. To minimize gasoline fuel consumption, the average boiling point is adjusted to about 100oC. In addition, as adjustment to the optimal boiling point depends on the air temperature, the composition will differ between summer and winter, and between cold areas like Hokkaido and hot areas like Okinawa.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Amino Acids Contained in Vegetable Juice (Japan)
Pretreatment using the EZ:faast kit, following by analysis using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which is equipped with a high-speed scanning function, enabled rapid analysis of amino acids. With this combination, it took only 15 minutes per sample from pretreatment to analysis. (Reference: Shimadzu Application News No. M246, Analysis of Amino Acids Using Fast-GC/MS and Metabolite Database)
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Specific Aromatic Amines Formed From Azo Dyes and Pigments (Japan)
Fast-GC/MS is an effective way to improve laboratory productivity by shortening analysis cycle times. Fast-GC/MS methods require a system with a high-performance AFC controller that is compatible with narrow bore capillary columns and high-speed data acquisition technology. Shimadzu GCMS systems offer the high-performance levels necessary to satisfy these requirements. This Application Datasheet shows results from analyzing lavender oil using conventional methods and Fast-GC/MS methods.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Automatic Identification and Semi-quantitative Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Serum Using "GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database" (Japan)
EDX is used for simple judgment of ornaments containing precious metals like composition analysis, analysis of additions and ranking by the result, ascertainment of the truth. Elements like Platinum (Pt), Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), Cupper (Cu) are well known, but in case additions like Palladium (Pd), Ruthenium (Ru), and plating of Rhodium (Rh), that are not prevailing, are contained, judgement made by weight or observation may not be sufficient. EDX can provide solution for this issue with non-destructive and short time analysis. The following is the example of such case.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters in Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GCMS System (2) - Phthalate Esters (Japan)
Alkyl halides are used as an alkylating agent for raw ingredients in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals or are generated as a byproduct of drug synthesis. They have been identified as potential carcinogens or genotoxins. This Application Data Sheet shows an example of analyzing 18 alkyl halides using headspace-GC-MS.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Residual Pesticides in Processed Foods by GC/MS/MS (Japan)
The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Neutral Loss Scan of PCBs in Transformer Oil by GCMSMS (Japan)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs) widely used in plastics. Due to their toxicity and persistence, their industrial production is to be eliminated under the Stockholm Convention. Contamination from PBDEs is widespread in the environment, including in sediments. In order to determine PBDEs in sediments, they need to be separated from a large amount of interferences co-extracted during sample preparation. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS were evaluated for this purpose.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - PBDE in Sediment by GC/MS/MS (Japan)
This application datasheet presents a study of an analysis of residual pesticides in retort-pouched curry (curry packaged in a sealed pouch) using QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS. QuEChERS method is commonly used for extraction and cleanup of food products prior to GC/MS/MS analysis, due to its speed and simplicity, while GCMS/MS is able to selectively separate residual pesticides from a large quantity of co-extracted substances.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Residual Pesticides in Spinich by GC/MS/MS Scan/MRM (Japan)
The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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Utility of a System Consisting of EGA/PY-3030D and GCMS-QP2010 Ultra: Analysis of Eyeliner and Pyrolysis of a Mural Paint at 1000°C
The analysis of eyeliner and museum quality paint are used to demonstrate the capabilities of a system consisting of an EGA/PY-3030D pyrolyzer and a GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The eyeliner was first analyzed using evolved gas analysis (EGA-MS). The EGA thermogram shows that the eyeliner contains compounds with a wide range of properties – from volatile organic solvents to nonvolatile polymers. The compositional analysis of each temperature zone on the EGA thermogram was determined using a high-resolution capillary column interfaced to the GC-MS. The high temperature pyrolysis of an ancient mural paint illustrates of the value of pyrolysis-GC-MS to characterize a material of interest.
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Automatic Identification and Semi-quantitative Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Serum Using “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”
A sample consisting of serum extract from a patient administered with psychotropic drugs was analyzed by GC/MS; identification and semiquantitation of the substances were conducted using the “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”. All three administered substances were identified, and their semi-quantitative values were calculated. The results indicated that it is possible to qualitatively and semi-quantitatively determine drugs using this database.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (4) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 2 (Japan)
Haloalcohols are used as synthetic materials in pharmaceuticals, and are considered potential genotoxic impurities (PGI). In addition, glycidol has been identified as a cancer-causing agent, and has been assigned to Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) in terms of carcinogenic risk by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This Application Data Sheet introduces analysis of haloalcohols and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) using the GC-MS.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Simultaneous Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods via the QuEChERS Method Utilizing GC/MS/MS (Japan)
The GCMS-TQ8030 is a triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS system equipped with scan/MRM mode to allow simultaneous scan and MRM data measurements. This data sheet introduces the results of an investigation using the scan/MRM mode, where target pesticides were quantitatively determined using the MRM data, and concentrations of the untargeted pesticides were estimated by applying the scan data to the Compound Composer Database Software Ver.2.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (2) (Japan)
This Application Data Sheet introduces an example of simultaneous scan/MRM measurements for the mass separation of cholesterol from triazolam and etizolam in whole blood. Refer to this in conjunction with Application Datasheet No. 75, which introduces an example of simultaneous screening for other medicinal toxicants by applying scan data from simultaneous scan/MRM measurements to the “GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database”.
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Aroclors in Human Blood Serum by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS
The Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS simplifies detection and quantitation of PCBs at sub-ppb concentrations in complex human blood serum with virtually no interference from the background matrix. Ability to independently optimize each instrument parameter, such as MRM transition, collision energy, and quadrupole resolution, produces the level of sensitivity, selectivity, and accuracy required for TEQ measurements and related programs. The method can be used to screen complex biological samples for individual PCB congeners or Aroclor mixtures, and to estimate total PCB concentrations.
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Evaluation of Hydrogen as a Carrier Gas for Gas Chromatography / Mass Spectrometry
The Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 SE, with its inert, low-nickel source, was used for analysis of a wide range of compound classes using hydrogen as the carrier gas without requiring any changes to the instrument hardware. Chromatography with hydrogen carrier gas was excellent, and retention times were easily reproduced using the constant linear velocity feature of the GCMSsolutions software. MS tuning was essentially equivalent, and passed all acceptance criteria with both hydrogen and helium.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (4) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 2
This Application Data Sheet reports on results with respect to a method for quantitating haloalcohols (2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-iodoethanol) and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) utilizing the GCMS system. For the analysis conditions as well as the total ion current chromatogram and mass spectra for the haloalcohols and glycidol, refer to GCMS Application Data Sheet No. 41, "Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3), Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol Part 1."
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Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Cheese
Volatile compounds, including aroma compounds, in Parmesan and Blue cheese were analyzed using adsorption and thermal desorption GC/MS (TD-GC/MS). MonoTrap was used as adsorbant. It is a state-of-theart silica monolithic and hybrid adsorbent having a large surface area and properties based on silica, activated carbon (graphite carbon for Mono Trap TD) and the octadecyl functional group. GC-MS equipped with the OPTIC-4 multi-purpose injector was used for thermal desorption. The OPTIC-4 allows direct introduction of desorbed gas into a capillary column without re-adsorption.
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Analysis of Light Oil Utilizing a GC x GC-MS System
GC x GC systems use the latest chromatographic technology to achieve high-level separation through direct connection of 2 different types of columns. This method is optimal for the separation of target substances from complicated matrices that are problematic for ordinary GC or GC-MS systems, and for analysis by type from 2- dimensional chromatogram patterns. It can be used for analysis in a variety of fields, including natural products, foodstuffs, fragrances, environmental science, and petro chemistry.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Higher Sensitivity Analysis of 2-Methoxy-3-Isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in Wine Using GC-MS/MS (PCI) (Japan)
Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples. This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites in human serum utilizing the GC/MS Metabolite Database Ver. 2, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as serum, urine, and cells.
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Analysis of Metabolites Extracted from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS
Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples. This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem (ES) cells utilizing the GC/MS Metabolite Database Ver. 2, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as serum, urine, and cells.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Serum Using GC-MS/MS
Single quadrupole GC-MS provides excellent chromatographic resolution and enables stable measurements, and is therefore widely utilized for metabolome analyses involving the comprehensive analysis of in vivo metabolites. However, biological samples contain many metabolites and various matrices, so separation with single quadrupole GC-MS can be difficult. With triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS MRM, MS separation is performed twice, with Q1 and Q3. This helps remove the impact of overlapping peaks due to interfering components in comparison with scan mode, in which MS separation is performed with a single quadrupole, and thus enables the acquisition of accurate quantitative results with high-sensitivity detection.
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Analysis of metabolites in human serum using GC-MS
Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples. This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites in human serum utilizing the GC/MS Metabolite Database Ver. 2, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as serum, urine, and cells.
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GC Application - Analysis of Blood Alcohol by Headspace with Simultaneous GC-FID and MS Detection (GCMS-QP2010 SE, SSI)
Corn Oil like other oils can be used to produce biodiesel. As Biodiesels grow in popularity and prevalence, so does the need for quality control during their production, specifically there are regulations for maximum content of metals such as Na, Ca, K, Mg, S and P. This application note will demonstrate the ability of ICP emission spectroscopy to determine the concentrations of element of interest. The technique of analysis used is method of standard addition.
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Easy Screening for Residual Pesticides in Foods using GC-MS
In recent years, with increases in the number of pesticides and the diversification of substances under investigation, there have been calls for quick and high-accuracy screening for residual pesticides in foods using GC-MS. The Quick-DB database contains a variety of information on 478 pesticide components (mass spectra, retention indices, and calibration curves). It can be used to quickly calculate semi-quantitative values without using standard samples. A pesticide surrogate is used as the internal standard for the calibration curves. Favorable quantitative accuracy is achieved through quantitative analysis in accordance with the physical properties of each pesticide. In this Data Sheet, residual pesticides in soya beans are analyzed using Quick-DB.
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GC-MS Application for Artificial Photosynthesis Research
A variety of analytical methods are utilized to measure reaction products in research into artificial photosynthesis, in which high-energy substances are manufactured using photo catalysts and solar energy. These methods include GC, HPLC, and absorption photometry. Experiments utilizing isotope-labeled samples are an effective way of confirming and clarifying reaction mechanisms. Mass spectrometers demonstrate their worth in such measurements. This Data Sheet presents an example of the use of GC-MS to measure carbon monoxide, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and other substances generated in carbon dioxide photo catalytic reduction under a methanol environment.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - 360 Pesticides in Under 10 Minutes by GC-MS/MS (SEG)
The GCMSsolution control software (ver. 4.20 and later) for the GCMS-TQ series is equipped with a Smart MRM method creation function. Smart MRM is linked to the AART (Automatic Adjustment of Retention Time) function, and calculates retention times for the measured components from just a single n-alkane analysis. In addition, an analysis time program is configured automatically based on the calculated retention times. This Data Sheet introduces the procedures for creating these MRM methods for multicomponent simultaneous analysis.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Procedures for Creating MRM Methods for Multicomponent Simultaneous Analyses Using Retention Indices (Japan)
In GC-MS/MS MRM mode, the optimal transitions (combinations of precursor ion and product ion) and collision energies (CEs) must be determined. However, optimizing transitions can be difficult when analyzing many compounds. GCMSsolution (ver. 4.20 and later) control software for the GCMS-TQ series is equipped with an MRM optimization tool. This Data Sheet introduces the procedure for optimizing transitions using the MRM optimization tool.
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Shimadzu Guide to BFB Tuning for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds
The recommended tune conditions shown here easily meet all BFB Tune Evaluation criteria defined in all US EPA methods for analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds by GCMS. A single tune file produced BFB data that met the criteria for all sequences run over at least three months. During the evaluation period, a validation study for US EPA Method 624 met all defined method criteria, producing stable IS and SS peak areas and passing BFB Tune Evaluations. The instrument did not require re-tuning at any time during the validation study.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Analysis and Quantitation of Cocaine on Currency Using GC-MS/MS (SSI)
This application note describes a method for extraction, identification, and quantitation of cocaine on paper money from nine different geographical areas around the globe, including five samples from the United States, using the Shimadzu GCMSTQ8040 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and the Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) monitoring mode
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 8260 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water and Solid Waste (SSI)
This application note describes analytical operating conditions for analysis of US EPA Method 8260C1, Revision 3, August 2006, and includes BFB tune parameters, calibration details, and a complete MDL and Precision and Accuracy study for almost 100 target compounds at multiple concentrations
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Analysis of Metabolites Extracted from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS
Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples. This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem (ES) cells utilizing the Smart Metabolites Database, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as blood, urine, and cells.
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Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Methods 524.3 and 524.4 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water
Due to advances in analytical instrumentation the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) introduced a new drinking water method in June 2009. US EPA Method 524.31 allows laboratories to modify purge and trap and GCMS conditions in order to accommodate instrumental advances and shorten sample preparation time. The US EPA also investigated the option of using nitrogen as the purge gas in an additional drinking water method, US EPA Method 524.42. This application note will compare analytical results when using helium and nitrogen purge gases.
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Determination of N-Nitrosamines by USEPA Method 521 using Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
This paper describes development of a Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) instrument method using a commercially available triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS for detection and quantitation of N-nitrosamines after extraction as described by USEPA Method 521. GC/MS/MS in MRM mode produces significant improvements in selectivity and specificity, as well as dramatically lower detection limits than single quadrupole GC/MS, especially in complex matrices producing background interferences. In addition, this paper presents final instrument configuration and operating conditions, as well as instrument validation results, including estimated MDLs, and precision & accuracy as evaluated using standards at various concentration levels. Method 521 tandem MS with CI results are compared to the electron impact ionization triple quadrupole results.
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Analysis of Food Preservatives by GC/MS
Food preservatives are used to prevent adverse changes and rotting of foods by suppressing the proliferation of microorganisms; they are used in accordance with the properties of the food to which they will be added. Many of the analytical methods used for analyzing food preservatives employ extraction of the compounds of interest by the steam distillation technique, followed by quantitative analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gas chromatography can also be used for measurement of many compounds used as food preservatives, including benzoic acid, sorbic acid, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA methyl), ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA ethyl), propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA propyl), and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHBA butyl), and therefore, gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS) is an effective analysis technique for verifying the detection results obtained by HPLC. This Application News introduces an example of GC/MS analysis of six types of food preservatives.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Paint Thinner Analysis Utilizing Headspace GCMS (Japan)
When using the two dimensional LC system introduced here, retention time repeatability in the first dimension is extremely important because impurity peak fractionation is conducted within specific time-controlled intervals. In other words, this technique cannot be applied unless retention times are consistent. However, it is reasonable to assume that the repeatability of retention times has already been determined since retention time repeatability is fundamental to the development of a specific test method. If the separation technique for the first dimension separation is already established, measurement can be conducted without re-evaluation of the technique introduced here, eliminating the need for LC/MS measurement using complex volatility conditions that would have been required otherwise. The ability to confirm impurities through comparison with blank data should greatly contribute to the efficiency of CMC impurity identification.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Metabolic Components Contained in Dog Cerebrospinal Fluid (Japan)
To obtain highly reliable data from analyzing residual pesticides in foods by GC requires confirmation tests using columns with different liquid phases. In contrast, with GC-MS, confirmation is possible by using not only retention times, but also m/z values. Therefore, normally only one type of column is used for tests. However, due to the increased number of pesticides and the diversification in substances subject to inspection, users are demanding higher reliability by using columns with different liquid phases, even for GC-MS analysis. Therefore, a Twin Line MS Kit, which enables the installation of two types of columns with different liquid phases in one MS, without the use of splitters or flow restrictors, was used to analyze residual pesticides in food.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - GC-MS Analysis of Catalytic Degradation Products of Lignin Model Compounds in Biomass Research (Japan)
This guide discusses analytical methods for monitoring halogenated pollutants in a wide variety of matrices including water, solids (soils and plant materials), and biota (fish and animal tissue). Classes of compounds such as chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated herbicides, disinfection byproducts, and fumigants are among the pollutants addressed here. Gas chromatography (GC) combined with electron capture detection (ECD) is a common technique used for analyzing these compounds. ECD provides high sensitivity to these electronegative compounds, which results in extremely low detection limits. To ensure accurate identification, each sample can be analyzed simultaneously using a dual ECD instrument and two columns of differing selectivity for confirmational analysis.
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GC-MS Analysis of Catalytic Reaction Products of Glucose in Biomass Research
This report presents results obtained by adding a solid acid catalyst to an aqueous glucose solution, heating the solution, and then directly analyzing the resulting reaction solution using GC-MS without pretreatment. At present, in the utilization of woody biomass, the cellulose that comprises approximately 60 % to 70 % of the material can be converted to glucose. The analysis of the catalytic reaction presented in this report revealed that primarily hydroxymehylfurfural is further generated from glucose used as a raw material. Hydroxymehylfurfural is a compound with considerable added value as a raw material for pharmaceuticals and chemicals. The analysis also revealed the existence of lactic acid and other low-grade organic acid compounds. In addition, utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a differential vacuum system, enabled acquisition of favorable results even when directly injecting the sample aqueous solution into the GC-MS.
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GC-MS Analysis of Catalytic Degradation Products of Lignin Model Compounds in Biomass Research
This report presents an example of degrading a lignin model compound with a solid acid catalyst in an aqueous solution and directly analyzing the resulting solution using GC-MS without pretreatment. Lignin accounts for 20 % to 30 % of woody biomass. However, it is only weakly reactive because of its strong macromolecular structure, and therefore difficult to degrade. Since anisole, phenol, guaiacol, and other lignin degradation products are useful materials, though, research is progressing into degradation methods that provide a high conversion yield. The analysis of the catalytic degradation reaction presented in this report revealed that guaiacol is mainly produced from lignin model compounds. In addition, utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, which features a differential vacuum system, enabled the acquisition of favorable results even when directly injecting the sample aqueous solution into the GC-MS.
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GCMS Application - Profiling Trace Volatile Compounds in Blood by GCMS with Dynamic Headspace Extraction (Japan)
Use of DHS-GC-MS with the HS-20 trap enabled analysis of trace level blood components. Using a standard mixture of volatile components, results were compared with those obtained using the HS-SPME method. The use of DHS permits detection of a wide range of volatile components, including alcohols, with high sensitivity. Furthermore, the validation results demonstrated the detection of all the volatile compounds at ng levels. Also, the results of mouse plasma analysis indicated the detection of volatile components including alcohols, demonstrating that measurement of trace-level volatile components is possible. These results demonstrate that this system offers superior sensitivity to that obtained using SMPE in the measurement of volatile components. This technique is suggested for use in profiling volatile compounds in clinical research.
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GCMS-TQ8040 3rd Party Application - Aroma Volatiles of the Headspace Generated by Essential Oils using Q Research Solutions Portable Olfactive Devices (qPOD) (Rutgers)
Different amounts if essential oils (Lavandin, Lavandula x intermedia) imbibed in paper blotters were placed in the dosing chamber of the qPOD. For each amount of oil, a headspace sample was taken from the sample tube using an air displacement pipette and glass pipettes and the aroma strength was determined at five minutes. The air was transferred to headspace vials (20 ml) and then subject to GC/MS analysis, using a state of the art GC/MS (GC2010 Plus/TQ8040). A time course study was conducted with two qPOD containing for 62.5µl and 125µl of oil by taking samples at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. The amount of oil in the headspace was estimated by the total ion current area generated by the GC/MS. The essential components were identified by their MS spectra and retention indices.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Determination of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials Milkvetch Root (China)
In the process of cultivation of Chinese herbal medicines, it’s often threatened by variety of diseases, the yield and quality of medicinal materials are impacted directly which causing significant economic losses. In 1997 the national Traditional Chinese Medicine Bureau organized relevant units to carry out research on Chinese herbal medicine plant protection, the result of investigation shows that the medicinal plant diseases and insect pests prevention is the weak link for the production of Chinese herbal medicine. Plant diseases and insect pests of many types, bring severe losses. Due to the lack of knowledge about medicinal pesticide, misuse of pesticides is the prominent problem. The problem of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicine, a direct impact on human health, hinder the traditional Chinese medicine into the international market. In this paper, using the SHIMADZU three triple quadrupole GC-MS realized the determination of multiple trace pesticide residues in Milkvetch Root by instrument GCMS-TQ8040, the method has high sensitivity and good accuracy.
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Rapid Screening for Drugs of Abuse Using Higher Column Flow Rates in Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
The need to run more samples in the same amount of time with the same data quality has increased; this poster addresses how certain modifications can be made to increase throughput while retaining high-quality data
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (5): Analysis of Alkyl Halides
Alkyl halides are used as an alkylating agent for raw ingredients in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals or are generated as a byproduct of drug synthesis. They have been identified as potential carcinogens or genotoxins. This Application Data Sheet shows an example of analyzing 18 alkyl halides using headspace-GC-MS.
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Research on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetables by online GPC‐GC/MS
7 kinds of PCBs in two complicated matrix–carrot and ginger were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GPC–GCMS), which could remove majority of macromolecules such as oil and pigment.
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Determination of pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicinal materials Milkvetch Root
In this paper, using the SHIMADZU three triple quadrupole GC-MS realized the determination of multiple trace pesticide residues in Milkvetch Root by instrument GCMS-TQ8040, the method has high sensitivity and good accuracy
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ICPMS Application - Determination of organic and inorganic contaminants in wine using GCMS and ICPMS spectrometry (Germany)
Strict and steady control from the origin of the food to the final product is needed to protect consumers against undesired contaminations and guarantee a high level of quality. This is achieved by controlling limits of maximum allowable concentrations of hazardous substances. Recent examples are the European drinking water regulation, the European food safety regulations, the recent food and packaging directive, and the European wine regulation.
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GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database
In recent years, abuse of stimulants and other illegal drugs, particularly hallucinogens, shows no signs of abating; crime and poisoning events due to medicines, agricultural chemicals, and psychotropic drugs are on the increase, presenting a growing and serious social problem. In crime laboratories and forensic research laboratories, these chemicals are analyzed using a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The detection of these harmful drugs by GC-MS requires investigation to determine the optimum analytical conditions and data processing conditions specific to each of the drugs. To eliminate the need to conduct these cumbersome operations, Shimadzu has developed its own proprietary "GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database," which contains critical information for more than 1000 drugs*, including psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and pesticides. With emphasis on harmful drugs of abuse, difficult-to-obtain standard samples of these drugs and their metabolites are registered in the library, making the library ideal for forensic toxicological analysis. In addition, the database contains a library of mass spectra, method files containing the names, quantitation and reference ions, standard mass spectra, and retention indices specific to each of these drugs of abuse. Here we introduce quick and easy techniques for detecting and conducting semi-quantitation of harmful drugs using method files.
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GCMS Application - Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water-based Paints and Varnishes Using GC-MS (SAP)
Water-based paint has been increasingly gaining popularity in the recent years for some of its advantages, such as drying faster and being easier to clean off, over oil-based paint (aka solvent-based paint). Furthermore, the biggest advantage of water-based paint is that it does not pervade the room with the strong smell that solvent-based paint does. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are responsible for the signature smell in paints, and are considered to be harmful to the environment, even more so for the people who work with them on a regular basis. In many countries, governmental regulations, consumer demands and technological advances have led to the development of low-VOC and zero-VOC paints and varnishes which have significantly less impact on human and environmental health. Currently, regulations are still not available in many countries in the Asian region. This application news aims to provide a general model on using GC-MS to determine the amount of VOCs in water-based paints and varnishes, in anticipation of any emerging regulations in the near future. Referring to the method described in ISO 11890-2:2013, thirty-five commonly used solvents in water-based paints and varnishes are analyzed and quantified.
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An Improved Method of Updating Retention Times for GCMS
A new technique has been developed to update retention times automatically in the data processing software. The technique is based on the use of retention indices, referenced to a hydrocarbon standard (series of n-alkanes). This is a multipoint correction method, so target analytes will always be bracketed by the retention index marker compounds to ensure accuracy of updated retention times for target compounds. Examples illustrate the accuracy of this technique using a subset of US EPA Method 8270D analytes.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters in Children's Toys Using GC-MS
As of February 2009, the US Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, Section 108, mandated that all manufacturers of children’s toys analyze their products for Phthalate Esters. The method to be used is in accordance with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). In this study, six phthalate esters in children's toys were measured using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The simultaneous Scan/SIM data acquisition technique was utilized, with the SIM data used for quantitation. The data showed excellent calibration curve linearity and repeatability. In two of the toy samples, unregulated plasticizers were identified by scan data, illustrating the efficiency of simultaneous Scan/SIM measurement.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC/MS/MS (Part 2) (Japan)
Here we report a new on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS method with multiple injection function using an auto-sampler, which enhances not only the throughput, but also the trapping efficiency and recovery of the analysis.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC/MS/MS (Part 1) (Japan)
This Application Datasheet introduces the results of Scan/MRM measurements of metabolites extracted from rat urine. Five target components are measured with MRM, and unknown peaks are identified through a library search of the mass spectrum obtained with Scan.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Cheese (Japan)
The chemical and petrochemical industry uses superheated steam as energy carrier in order to provide energy for the various steps during thermal processing. The superheated steam is usually generated from ultrapure water, which is used to prevent damage to the boilers. In order to use as little water as possible, the reflux condensate is redirected to the boiler. It is therefor important that the condensate is free from organic contaminants.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters In Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System (1): PBBs and PBDEs
In recent years, an analysis method is required to determine not only polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are regulated under the RoHS Directive, but also phthalate esters and other brominated flame retardants not governed by the directive (such as tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane). The method was developed to analyze those compounds under the same analytical conditions using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMSQP2020 Ultra systems. This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing the brominated flame retardants PBB and PBDE using the developed method.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application 3rd Party - Drinking Water Analysis Conditions for USEPA Method 524.3 With EST Evolution P & T (EST)
Due to advances in analytical instrumentation the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) introduced a new drinking water method. USEPA Method 524.3 allows laboratories to modify purge and trap and GCMS conditions in order to accommodate instrumental advances and shorten sample preparation time. Currently, the USEPA is investigating the option of using Nitrogen as the purge gas in an additional drinking water method, USEPA Method 524.4. This application note will compare Helium and Nitrogen purge gases.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 1 (Japan)
Here, we present the results of sensitivity evaluation testing of commercially available antimony-spiked PE (polyethylene) plastic standards using the EDX-720/GP. In addition, since quick screening evaluation analysis of these restricted elements is often judged by the OK/Gray/NG method using a dedicated instrument, an example of this analysis is also presented here.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Scan/MRM Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using GC/MS/MS (3) (Japan)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in water are regulated by environmental water quality laws or standards because of health hazard factors. Purge and trap methods and Headspace methods are commonly used for analysis of VOCs because of their sensitivity and ease of use. This application presents an example of analysis of VOCs in drinking water using the Shimadzu HS-20 headspace sampler.
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GCMS Application - Analysis of VOCs in Water Using Headspace-GC/MS (HS-20, Japan)
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in water are regulated by environmental water quality laws or standards because of health hazard factors. Purge and trap methods and Headspace methods are commonly used for analysis of VOCs because of their sensitivity and ease of use. This application presents an example of analysis of VOCs in drinking water using the Shimadzu HS-20 headspace sampler.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (1) (Japan)
Two types of UV-VIS Spectrophotometers are available: the single mono chromator type and the double monochromator type. As the name suggest, the single monochromator type contains one monochromator, while the double monochromator type contains two. But why are two types available? This UV Talk Letter explains the reasons and introduces the characteristics of each type of instrument.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (2) (Japan)
This Application Data Sheet reports on MRM sensitivity and analytical repeatability when using simultaneous scan/MRM measurements with respect to PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. Application Data Sheet No. 79 presents an example of the quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by using the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements of a river water sample. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 features an example of screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (3) (Japan)
This data sheet introduces an example of the accurate quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in river water using the analytical conditions for simultaneous scan/MRM measurements introduced in Application Data Sheet No. 78. It presents sensitivity and repeatability results for PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in MRM mode, acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements, in Application Data Sheet No. 78. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 introduces an example of the screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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High-Sensitivity Analysis of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole in Wine Using Headspace-Trap GC/MS
2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) emitted from wine corks can taint wine and cause an objectionable odor. Due to the low threshold value for sensing the odor, highly sensitive measurements are required for monitoring. Conventionally, TCA was measured using methods such as purge and trap, which is very effective in concentrating samples, or thermal desorption. The HS-20 headspace sampler includes a trap function that is able to concentrate headspace gases. This Data Sheet describes an example of high-sensitivity measurement of TCA in wine using an HS-trap GC/MS system.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3) - Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol, Part 1
Haloalcohols are used as synthetic materials in pharmaceuticals, and are considered potential genotoxic impurities (PGI). In addition, glycidol has been identified as a cancer-causing agent, and has been assigned to Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) in terms of carcinogenic risk by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This Application Data Sheet introduces analysis of haloalcohols and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) using the GC-MS.
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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using GC-MS
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are byproducts of burning fuels, such as mineral oils, and are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. These compounds are regulated in many countries as harmful pollutants in environmental water and the atmosphere. In Japan, the "Measuring method manual for toxic air pollutants" and "Measuring method manual for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust gas emissions" were revised in March 2011. In addition, environmental standards, including fine particle regulations (PM2.5) and fine particles, can include PAHs. Consequently, there is an increasing need to measure PAHs. This application datasheet introduces an example of measuring 36 PAHs.
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Flavor/Fragrance Analysis by Fast-GC/MS
Fast-GC/MS is an effective way to improve laboratory productivity by shortening analysis cycle times. Fast-GC/MS methods require a system with a high-performance AFC controller that is compatible with narrow bore capillary columns and high-speed data acquisition technology. Shimadzu GCMS systems offer the high-performance levels necessary to satisfy these requirements. This Application Datasheet shows results from analyzing lavender oil using conventional methods and Fast-GC/MS methods.
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Analysis of Specific Aromatic Amines Formed From Azo Dyes and Pigments
Reductive cleavage of azo radicals from azo dyes and azo pigments comprising azo radicals (-N=N-) can form aromatic amines that are suspected carcinogens. Of these aromatic amines, 22 are designated as specific aromatic amines in Europe (EN 14362:2003) and 24 in China (GB/T 17592-2006), and the use of azo dyes and pigments that form these specific aromatic amines are regulated. The total ion current chromatogram (TIC) obtained from using GC-MS to measure a standard sample of the specific aromatic amines is shown here.
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Analysis of Gas Generated from Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery Cells
Electrolytic solutions in lithium ion rechargeable batteries consist of organic solvents (mainly composed of the carbonate series), electrolytes, and additives. GC-MS systems are effective for the analysis of the denatured components of electrolytic solutions resulting from the charging and discharging of batteries. This article introduces a sample analysis of gas produced from a lithium ion rechargeable battery cell stored for 5 days at 80oC.
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Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients
Methanesulfonic acid (mesylate), benzenesulfonic acid (besilate), and p-toluenesulfonic acid (tosylate), chemicals used in the process of synthesizing active pharmaceutical ingredients, are likely to generate sulfonic acid ester (Fig. 1) as a reaction byproduct. These compounds are known as potential genotoxic impurities (PGI) and are a significant cause for concern among pharmaceutical manufacturers. This article introduces the analysis of sulfonic acid esters utilizing the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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Analysis of Least Volatile Compounds through Direct Sample Introduction
Direct sample introduction (DI) is a method of directly introducing a sample to an ion source without passing it through a gas chromatograph (GC). DI is an effective method for mass spectral measurements of synthesized materials. The Shimadzu GC-MS can use direct sample introduction without having to remove the column. This application datasheet introduces the results of measurements of vitamin C and reserpine, which are usually difficult to analyze with a GC.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of Fatty Acids in Food Using PCI-GC-MS/MS (Japan)
Using the Intelligent Dynamic Range Extension Calculator (i-DRec), a new data analysis function for the photodiode array detector, peak area and peak height can be calculated using spectrum similarity, even in a high-concentration region where the detector signal is saturated.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Pefume Allergens by using Comprehensive 2D GC and a Rapid-Scanning Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (Japan)
Quantification of human IgG using an automated online trypsin digestion platform coupled directly to LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was performed. Two common peptides for IgG were monitored and the limits of detection were in the low fmol levels on column.
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Analysis of Fatty Acids in Food Using PCIGC- MS/MS
While some fatty acids, such as the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, are beneficial to human health because they lower the amount of blood-borne neutral fat, too much intake of saturated fatty acids raises the risk of some diseases. For this reason, there is a need for the batch analysis of these fatty acids in the life sciences and food engineering sectors. Despite requiring methylation, GC-MS has gained attention because of its suitability for multicomponent batch analyses.
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Determination of Fatty-acid Composition of Lipids in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using GC-MS
The cellular lipids were extracted from frozen pellets of human ES (embryonic stem) cells, and the constituent fatty acids were esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters. GC/MS analysis of the methylated fatty acids resulted in identification of 19 types of fatty acids. This report introduces the pretreatment protocol used to extract the lipids from the cells, and the fatty acids that can be analyzed by this process.
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Easy Screening for Residual Pesticides in Processed Foods Using GC-MS/MS
This data sheet reports on the results of applying Quick-DB and the Twin Line MS system to the analysis of residual pesticides in curry. Please also refer to Application Data Sheets No. 91 and No. 92. Application Data Sheet No. 91 introduced an example of easy screening for residual pesticides in foods using GCMS, while No. 92 introduced an example of using two columns with different separation patterns for easy screening of residual pesticides in foods.
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Analysis of Blood Alcohol by Headspace with Simultaneous GC-FID and MS Detection
Determination of Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) has been a standard analytical method in criminal labs for many years. The typical instrument configuration consists of a static headspace instrument for sample introduction, followed by gas chromatography (GC) with two dissimilar capillary columns for separation, and two Flame Ionization Detectors (FIDs) for detection and quantitation. Two sets of data are obtained simultaneously, and the quantitative results from the two FIDs are compared for confirmation of the reported BAC levels.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Automatic Optimization of Transitions and Collision Energies on the GMCS-TQ8040 (Japan)
Pain management is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with pain. We herein describe a novel five minute LC-MS/MS assay for quickly identifying and quantifying drugs (a large pain panel) in human plasma. Utilizing ultra fast positive and negative polarity switching with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, it is demonstrated that both positive and negative ions from many drug classes in human plasma can be easily quantified in a single injection, with chromatographic peak widths spanning only 3-4 seconds.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Drugs in Urine by GC-MS/MS Scan/MRM (SOPS)
Energy production is essential for every living organism. Energy production at the cellular level is carried out by various metabolic processes, including the glycolytic system and the TCA cycle. In order to investigate the metabolism of living systems, it is important to quantify the amount of each metabolite. However, many primary metabolites are hydrophilic and difficult to analyze by reversedphase chromatography. Ion pair chromatography is sometimes used for the analysis of such hydrophilic compounds but it is not preferable for LCMS analysis because ion pair reagents cause high background signals and sensitivity deterioration.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Analysis of Toxicological Substances in Whole Blood Using Smart Forensic Database (1) (Japan)
Here, we introduce an example of analysis of tyramine and histamine using the Prominence Amino Acid Analysis System, in which detection is conducted using post-column fluorescence derivatization. Mobile phase and reagent kits, which are available for this application, contain the required mobile phases and reaction reagent solution, thus eliminating the tedious preparation of mobile phase. Moreover, as sample pretreatment consists only of filtering and dilution for this application, analysis can be conducted without complicated processing.
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GCMS Application 3rd Party - Quantitative Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardant by Pyrolysis TD-GC Technique (Frontier)
In the analysis of brominated flame retardants, to be controlled under the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive), GC analysis is generally conducted after solvent extraction, although, it involves cumbersome operations. Therefore, simpler analytical technique needed to be developed. Here, the analysis of decabromodiphenyl ether (DeBDE), a most commonly used brominated flame retardant is achieved by thermal desorption (TD)-GC/MS technique.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Residual Solvents - Class 1, Class 2A, Class 2B - in Pharmaceuticals Using Headspace-GC/MS (Japan)
IGF-1 is a protein that is used in the screening of growth hormone deficiencies, as well as testing for abuse in professional sports. Detection using an LCMS approach is emerging as a preferred test to the standard immunoassay due to the improved reproducibility that LC-MS offers as well as the ability to multiplex and identify biologically relevant changes such as post translational modifications.
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Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 624 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Wastewater
The instrumentation and analytical conditions shown here have been demonstrated to provide outstanding results for US EPA Method 624, far exceeding all existing method criteria. The narrow-bore capillary column and Constant Linear Velocity mode provided outstanding chromatography for all compounds, including the early-eluting light gases, in less than 10 minutes. Calibration curves over narrow or wide ranges can be used to meet the project or contract needs. MDLs are easily 10-fold lower than the MDLs cited in the method, and a high level of precision and accuracy can be expected across any calibration range, particularly at the lower concentrations.
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GCMS Application - Stop and Smell the Roses! (Japan)
Quasi-drugs (cosmetics, etc.) in many cases, consist of an active ingredient together with various components such as preservatives. Typically, a UV detector or photodiode array detector (PDA) is used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of these substances. In particular, a PDA permits qualitative analysis of a UV absorption spectrum and quantitative analysis based on a chromatogram. Following are examples of analysis of the active ingredient in a quasi-drug (cosmetic), in addition to analysis of the coexisting preservatives, using the new Nexera-I integrated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Multicomponent Analysis of Metabolites in Human Plasma using GC-MS/MS (Japan)
Metabolome analysis, a comprehensive analysis of the various metabolites generated as biological functions are maintained, is widely used in disease biomarker searches and other investigations. To conduct these investigations, it is necessary to identify the metabolites contained in biological samples. This application data sheet introduces the results of identifying metabolites extracted from human embryonic stem (ES) cells utilizing the Smart Metabolites Database, which contains metabolites detected in biological samples, such as blood, urine, and cells.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Simultaneous Analysis of 477 Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Crops Using GC-MS/MS - Part 1 (Japan)
Anti-cancer research requires large volumes of samples covering a wide range of drugs to be analyzed. This can strain laboratory resources and impede the generation of analytical data necessary to accomplish research goals. The LCMS-8050 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer which combines industry leading UHPLC, scanning speeds, and detection limits was evaluated.
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[ARCHIVED] For GCMS stopping of batch via QAQC results
Efficient decomposition of the biomass using diastatic enzymes requires pretreatment with an acid or alkali. However, as a result of this pretreatment, organic acids such as formic acid and acetic acid, and furan compounds such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural are produced as byproducts, which adversely inhibit fermentation by the yeast. Here, we introduce an example of simultaneous analysis of acetic acid, formic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, typically present in the biomass, using a combination of an organic acid analysis system together with an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric detector.
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Compound Identification Procedures Combined with Quick-CI
The Quick-CI function is enable easy and simple use of the EI and PCI (Positive ion chemical ionization) mode using an NCI ion source without venting the MS. PCI can be obtained as a simple method of confirming molecular weight by molecule protonation and the combination of EI and PCI is a powerful identification technique when a compound cannot be identified based on its EI mass spectrum alone. Also, since the selected ionization mode is saved in a method file, the user can switch between EI and PCI for consecutive analyses. This Application Data Sheet presents a compound identification performed by combining the mass spectrum information obtained by the EI and the PCI using an NCI ion source.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Foods by GC-MS/MS (Japan)
This method offers better separation of organic acids for use in bioproduction, thereby permitting more accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis. In organic acid analysis by UV detection, peak intensities differ significantly among substances even when present at the same concentration. This can be attributed to the differences in absorption coefficient, which is dependent on the number of double bonds in the compound, and can complicate the determination of the appropriate dilution factor of the sample. On the other hand, in organic acid analysis using electrical conductivity detection, the peak intensities will be uniform.
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Shimadzu Guide to US EPA Method 8260 for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Ground Water and Solid Waste
The instrumentation and analytical conditions shown here have been demonstrated to provide outstanding results for US EPA Method 8260C, far exceeding all existing method criteria. The narrow-bore capillary column and Constant Linear Velocity mode provided outstanding chromatography for all compounds, including the early-eluting light gases, in less than 13 minutes. Calibration curves over narrow or wide ranges can be used to meet the project or contract needs. MDLs are easily well below 0.5 μg/L for all compounds when measured at either 0.5 or 1.0 μg/L, and a high level of precision and accuracy can be expected across any calibration rage, particularly at the lower concentrations.
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Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Foods by GC-MS/MS
In recent years, there has been a trend toward viewing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foods (particularly smoked products) as a problem. In 2009, the Codex Alimentarius Commission issued standards for reducing the PAH contamination level in smoked and directly dried foods. In addition, Europe, Canada, South Korea, China, and others established food standards for benzo[a]pyrene. This Application Data Sheet describes using a GC-MS/MS system to analyze the PAHs in "katsuobushi" (dried, smoked, and fermented skipjack tuna, which is very popular in Japanese cuisine).
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Fast Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Water Using Headspace-GC/MS (Japan)
The headspace-GC/MS method is utilized to analyze volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water and environmental water. VOCs are easy to evaporate from the water, so they must be analyzed as quickly as possible after sampling.1) Accordingly, the analysis time must be as short as possible, particularly when many samples must be analyzed. The headspace sampler allows up to 12 samples to be heated simultaneously. Therefore, analytical conditions were investigated in order to shorten analysis time using the HS-20 headspace sampler. As a result, it was possible to measure five samples per hour.
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GCMS-QP2020 Application - Compound Identification Procedures (Japan)
The Quick-CI function is enable easy and simple use of the EI and PCI (Positive ion chemical ionization) mode using an NCI ion source without venting the MS. PCI can be obtained as a simple method of confirming molecular weight by molecule protonation and the combination of EI and PCI is a powerful identification technique when a compound cannot be identified based on its EI mass spectrum alone. Also, since the selected ionization mode is saved in a method file, the user can switch between EI and PCI for consecutive analyses. This Application Data Sheet presents a compound identification performed by combining the mass spectrum information obtained by the EI and the PCI using an NCI ion source.
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GCMS-TQ8040 3rd Party Application - Aroma Using a New Headspace System to Evaluate Tomato Volatiles for Breeding and Selection (Rutgers)
In this preliminary study, two selected advanced tomato breeding lines, developed by Rutgers University tomato breeding program, were analyzed and compared to two commercial tomatoes varieties (one long distance fresh market shipping type; and the other a popular fresh market type known for good flavor) by using a Shimadzu GC/MS (GC2010 Plus/TQ8040 headspace analyzer) to create a profile of the tomato aromatic volatiles found in the headspace which should differ between tomato varieties.
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Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Using GC/MS/MS Operated in the MRM Mode
This paper describes use of a triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS method using Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode for sensitive and selective detection and quantitation of Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. A database with optimized MRM transitions for all of the OCPs and PCBs, including relative retention times for all components, makes method setup possible within minutes. The use of GC/MS/MS MRM mode provides enhanced selectivity, specificity and sensitivity in complex matrices with potential co-eluting interferences.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of Electrolyte Solution in Lithium Ion Rechargeable Battery (LIRB) and Evolved Gas from LIRB (Japan)
The electrolyte solution in a lithium ion rechargeable battery consists of an organic solvent (consisting chiefly of carbonates), the electrolyte, and additives. Evaluation of the electrolyte solution and analysis of its deterioration due to repetitive charge/discharge cycles is important for the further development of lithium ion rechargeable battery. GC-MS is applicable for composition analysis of the electrolyte solution, and for analysis of components in the electrolyte solution that have been generated due to repeated charging and discharging. This application news introduces examples of analysis of the electrolyte solution of a lithium ion rechargeable battery and of the gas evolved from a cell that has been maintained at a high temperature.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardants and Phthalate Esters In Polymers Under the Same Conditions Using a Pyrolysis GC-MS System (2): Phthalate Esters
In recent years, an analysis method is required to determine not only polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are regulated under the RoHS Directive, but also phthalate esters and other brominated flame retardants not governed by the directive (such as tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and bis(pentabromophenyl)ethane). Diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ehtylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are specified in the REACH SVHC (Substance of Very High Concern) list. This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing seven phthalate esters in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra systems.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - Analysis of MOSH and MOAH using SPE prior to GCxGC-MS analysis (Japan, Mondello)
2-Methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) is an aromatic substance with the fragrance of bell peppers. It is found in sauvignon blanc (a type of grape used for white wine) and cabernet sauvignon (a type of grape used for red wine), and gives the wines a favorable aroma. MIBP, which has a significant impact on the flavor of wine, has an extremely low threshold value in sensory tests, on the order of a few ng/L. Since wine contains many components, concentration and selective separation & detection are essential to analysis. The trace amounts of MIBP in wine were selectively detected by utilizing the MonoTrap silica monolithic absorbent for collection and concentration, and a GC/MS/MS (GCMS-TQ8030) in positive chemical ionization (PCI) mode. The MRM acquisition mode was used to monitor specific transitions for the compound of interest.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application - Shimadzu Guide to BFB Tuning for Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds (SSI)
The OneSight wide-range high-speed detector consists of a semiconductor array with more than 1000 channels. Compared with the conventional scintillation detector, higher-speed measurement is achieved due to its sensitivity, which is more than twenty times that of the scintillation type. In qualitative analysis, the scan mode can be selected from among the High Resolution, Standard, and Fast modes, in addition to the One-Shot mode in which the goniometer is fixed in place and the OneSight detector acquires a wide-angle exposure, thereby permitting high-speed, high-resolution measurement for a wide variety of samples. Here, we introduce examples of a high-speed X-ray diffraction analysis of pharmaceutical products.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters Using the Py-Screener (1)
In the RoHS directive (directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment), four phthalate esters: diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), will be added to the six conventionally limited substances starting in 2019. Of these, the substances that can be measured with GC-MS are the brominated flame retardants, PBBs and PBDEs, and phthalate esters. The Soxhlet extraction-GC/MS method, while an accurate quantitation method, requires time-consuming pretreatment and uses organic solvents. In contrast, the pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) method does not require complicated pretreatment and is therefore expected to be used as a screening method. The “Py-Screener” is a screening system for phthalate esters using Py-GC/MS. It consists of polymer standard samples containing phthalate esters, a sample preparation sampling kit, and Py-GC/MS analysis files. This Application Datasheet introduces measurements of phthalate ester standard samples using the Py- Screener.
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Analysis of Phthalate Esters Using the Py-Screener (2)
In the RoHS directive (directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment), four phthalate esters: diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), will be added to the six conventionally limited substances starting in 2019. Of these, the substances that can be measured with GC-MS are the brominated flame retardants, PBBs and PBDEs, and phthalate esters. The Soxhlet extraction-GC/MS method, while an accurate quantitation method, requires time-consuming pretreatment and uses organic solvents. In contrast, the pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) method does not require complicated pretreatment and is therefore expected to be used as a screening method. The “Py-Screener” is a screening system for phthalate esters. It consists of resin standard samples containing phthalate esters, a sample preparation sampling kit, and Py-GC/MS analysis files. This Application Datasheet introduces an example of the analysis of phthalate esters and brominated flame retardants using the Py-Screener.
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Nexera UC and GCMS Application - Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Products Using Nexera UC Off-line SFE-GC/MS System
Conventionally, analysis of residual pesticides in foods has involved pesticide extraction by a solvent extraction method before analysis by LC/MS or GC/MS. The problem with solvent extraction methods is that sample pretreatment requires a substantial amount of time and effort, and large quantities of organic solvents are used. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses supercritical carbon dioxide as the extraction solvent provides good extraction efficiency, where the solvent is similar to gas in terms of low viscosity and high diffusivity, and similar to fluid in terms of high solubility. This allows for extraction within a short period of time. This extraction method is also less damaging to the environment since it uses a smaller amount or organic solvent compared to conventional solvent extraction methods. We introduce an example GC/MS analysis of the pesticides extracted from an agricultural product using the Nexera UC off-line system.
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Simultaneous Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods via the QuEChERS Method Utilizing GC-MS/MS
This application demonstrates the simultaneous analysis of residual pesticides in foods using the QuEChERS method.
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Scan/MRM Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Foods Using GC-MS/MS (3)
This application presents an investigation of residual pesticides in food using the Scan/MRM mode
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GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
GCxGC Handbook: Application Compendium of Comprehensive 2D GC Vol. 1-5 (Japan)
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GCxG Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC
GCxG Handbook: Fundamental Principles of Comprehensive 2D GC
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Analysis of Hydrocarbons Using PCI-GC-MS
In this article, we describe a case example of using PCIGC-MS to measure hydrocarbons obtained from the catalytic decomposition of squalane, a compound obtained from microalgae.
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Particle Size SALD-2101 Application - Measurement of Particle Distribution and Particle Density of Rotifers, Using SALD-2100 Distribution Analyzer
Acephate and methamidophos are both highly polar substances, and their chromatographic peaks tend to show excessive tailing and matrix effects at the injection port in GC/MS analysis. To minimize these problems the injection port of the GCMS-QP2010 is designed to avoid uneven temperature distribution due to the column oven.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (1) (Japan)
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) has been recognized as a core technology for metabolomics research for the comprehensive analysis of low-molecular weight compounds in living organisms, and is widely used for biomarker discovery and quality assessment. To fulfill the demand for a high-throughput, high-sensitivity analytical system for GC/MS metabolomics research, we developed a high-speed quadrupole mass spectrometer (Q/MS), and conducted studies to determine the effectiveness of this instrument. In an experiment using a standard sample consisting of 10 amino acids, acquisition was possible over a wide quantitation range of 3.5–4.5 orders of magnitude. In analysis of the plasma from a mouse with acute inflammation, identification and quantitation of 168 compounds were possible, and using common inflammation markers, we were able to characterize the convergence process of the acute inflammatory response, which previously was not possible from the perspective of the metabolome. With the advent of this GC-Q/MS, further development in the study of metabolomics can be expected.
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Multicomponent Analysis of Metabolites in Human Plasma using GC-MS/MS
The analysis of metabolomes, such as when searching for disease biomarkers, is performed in many areas in the medical field, whether it be for fundamental research or for clinical studies. Single quadrupole GC-MS provides excellent chromatographic resolution and enables stable measurements, and is therefore widely utilized for metabolome analyses involving the comprehensive analysis of in vivo metabolites. However, biological samples contain many metabolites and various matrices, so separation with single quadrupole GC-MS can be difficult. With triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS MRM, MS separation is performed twice, with Q1 and Q3. This helps remove the impact of overlapping peaks due to interfering components in comparison with scan mode and SIM mode, in which MS separation is performed with a single quadrupole, and thus enables the acquisition of accurate quantitative results with high-sensitivity detection. Smart Metabolites Database registers MRM information of 475 metabolites mainly contained in biological samples such as blood, urine and cells. It enables simultaneous measurement of 475 metabolites using MRM mode. This application data sheet presents an analysis of metabolites in standard human plasma using the scan and MRM methods included in the Smart Metabolites Database, as well as a comparison of the results.
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Agreement between GC and GCMS Chromatograms (Chromatograms obtained at same linear velocity using AFC)
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Tank up in the rapeseed fields - Determination of glycerine, methanol, mono-, di- and triacylglycerides
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Nexera Application - High Speed, High Resolution Analysis (Part 39) Analysis of Aflatoxins in Food by Nexera
The effects of increased signal intensity and improved signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were investigated by eliminating noise with the installation of an overdrive lens in the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra, and verifying the effectiveness using simulation and experimentation by GC-MS. The results confirmed that S/N improved through application of the optimum voltage on the overdrive lens. In addition, it was verified from the results of analysis of 5 ppb chlorpyrifos-methyl by the full-scan method that high-sensitivity analysis is possible using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra equipped with this technology.
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i-Series Application - Analysis of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Energy Drink by Prominence-i with Differential Refractive Index Detector
This application note describes a GCMS purge-and-trap (P & T) method validation study conducted to evaluate operating conditions for the existing US EPA Method 624 VOC list, using updated technology and advanced GCMS instrumentation. GCMS instrument operating conditions are provided which bring the method in line with capabilities provided by contemporary laboratory equipment. This application note provides calibration results across three different ranges, complete MDL and Precision and Accuracy studies at multiple concentrations, and analysis of an independent laboratory VOC reference standard and real-world samples.
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Development of Green Technologies in GCMS-QP2010 Ultra
There has been an increasing interest in reducing running costs and environmental stress in many analytical laboratories using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers in the fields of food, forensic, life science, environment, and the like. To respond such interest, we have developed two technologies for lower power and carrier gas consumption: “Advanced Scanning Speed Protocol” (ASSPTM) necessary for the Fast-GC/MS method and “Ecology Mode” for saving energy in analysis standby mode. The analysis of organic acids in urine for evaluation showed that the use of the Fast-GC/MS with ASSPTM reduced helium gas by 90 percent and power by 66 percent, compared with our previous model, while retaining performance for analysis. An evaluation test in analysis standby mode confirmed that the instrument with the Ecology Mode reduced carrier gas and power consumption, by 60 percent and 36.5 percent, respectively. These results demonstrate that our GCMS-QP2010 Ultra has environmentally friendly features and ensures lower running costs.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application - Residual Pesticides in Spinich by GC/MS/MS Scan/MRM (Japan)
In the application here presented, tea tree oil, which is definitely a complex sample from a chromatographic point of view, has been investigated by means of a GC×GC-MS system. The objective was not only to unravel the chemical composition of the essential oil, but more specifically to compare a fresh sample, retrieved from the market, with a very old one (about 25 years old). The methodology utilized was capable of detecting oxidation products, also where the latter were not expected, highlighting the high sensitivity of the method used. It must be noted that the wide consumption of tea tree oil and the harmful properties of oxidized products has led the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products to deliver an opinion on TTO in 2008.
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GCMS-TQ8030 Application 3rd Party - The Need For Speed, Applying Triple Quadrupole MS in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Chromatography Today, SEG)
Here, we present a full-featured “Enterprise Informatics Service (EIS),” built over the last four years and encapsulating all of the above, that can be accessed easily and immediately by any lab at a fraction of the cost of traditional solutions. Users access the solution using nothing more than their web browser and from any geographic location. For lab IT administrators, there is absolutely nothing to install as the whole solution is available as a secure service. The system is highly secure, as transmission and receipt of data uses the same level encryption that the online banking system employ. The lab’s existing custom scripts, if any, can be incorporated into the EIS system in approximately one to two weeks of effort, thus allowing labs with existing informatics teams to benefit from the EIS system.
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Characterization of Paint from Art Work Using Automatic Reactive Pyrolysis in the OPTIC-4 Inlet
Pyrolysis GC-MS provides an extremely useful method for art research, because it allows solid samples to be directly analyzed and requires only small sample quantities. However, pyrolysis of natural polar substances can generate polar compounds that cannot be measured by GC. To overcome this limitation, the thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) method can be used. This method converts polar macromolecules into weakly polar hydrolyzed and methylated degradation compounds. The information obtained from THM-GC is useful for identifying the composition of paints, varnishes, coatings, or binders (natural) in art work. However, performing THM-GC methods using a Curie-point or filament type pyrolyzer can result in problems with repeatability or quantitative analysis. In contract, the OPTIC-4 enables performing all THM reactions within the inlet. Therefore, by optimizing the TMH conditions, it enables obtaining good repeatability. This datasheet presents the results from applying the THM-GC/MS method to characterize complicated samples characteristic to paint from air work.
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Effectiveness of Fast Scanning Measurement Using GC×GC-MS
A GC×GC-MS system incorporates 2 chromatographic columns with different separation characteristics, non-polar and polar columns, permitting acquisition of comprehensive 2-dimensional chromatograms by orthogonal separation according to boiling point and polarity. Excellent separation is obtained with an extremely narrow chromatographic peak width on the order of hundreds of milliseconds. Even compounds that are difficult to separate by conventional GC-MS can now be separated using GC×GC-MS. It is an extremely effective system for qualitative analysis, which requires the separation of target substances in complex matrices, common in natural substances, as well as impurity analysis. However, due to the requirement for MS capable of very fast scan speed, quadrupole MS systems have been considered to be unsuitable for GC×GC-MS. The GCMS-QP2010 Ultra resolves this problem with a scan speed as high as 20,000 u/sec.
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Screening of residual pesticides in food with two different columns
In recent years, with increases in the number of pesticides and the diversification of substances under investigation, there have been calls for quick and high-accuracy screening for residual pesticides in foods using GC-MS. The Quick-DB database includes mass spectra, retention times, and calibration curves for 478 pesticide components. It can be used to quickly calculate semi-quantitative values without requiring analytical standards. If a pesticide peak is detected, it is essential to check for potential interference from co-eluting contaminants to insure highly accurate screening. One of the ways for checking is to analyze the samples with two columns with different types of stationary phase. For this purpose, the Twin Line MS system is very useful because it enables the installation of two types of columns to one MS. The Quick-DB contains information compatible with two different columns, so that it can also be applied to the Twin Line MS system. In this Data Sheet, residual pesticides in foods were analyzed by applying Quick-DB and the Twin Line MS system.
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Effectiveness of Metabolomics Research Using Gas Chromatograph / Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer with High-Sensitivity and High-Speed Scanning
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) has been recognized as a core technology for metabolomics research for the comprehensive analysis of low-molecular weight compounds in living organisms, and is widely used for biomarker discovery and quality assessment. To fulfill the demand for a high-throughput, high-sensitivity analytical system for GC/MS metabolomics research, we developed a high-speed quadrupole mass spectrometer (Q/MS), and conducted studies to determine the effectiveness of this instrument. In an experiment using a standard sample consisting of 10 amino acids, acquisition was possible over a wide quantitation range of 3.5–4.5 orders of magnitude. In analysis of the plasma from a mouse with acute inflammation, identification and quantitation of 168 compounds were possible, and using common inflammation markers, we were able to characterize the convergence process of the acute inflammatory response, which previously was not possible from the perspective of the metabolome. With the advent of this GC-Q/MS, further development in the study of metabolomics can be expected.
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GCMS Application 3rd Party - A Fast, Easy and "Green" Thermal Desorption-GC/MS Method for the Analysis of Phthalate Esters in PVC (Frontier)
Residual solvents in pharmaceuticals are defined as organic volatile chemicals that are used or produced in the manufacture of drug substances or excipients, or in the preparation of drug products. Residual solvents are classified and managed as Class 1 to Class 3 substances, depending on the risk they pose to human health. In this application, we investigated using headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) according to Procedure A. Using the HS-GC method, measurement is to be performed as three separate analyses, which are required to achieve chromatographic separation within the three different classes of compounds, Class 1, Class 2A, and Class 2B. However, using Hs-GC/MS, complete chromatographic separation is not necessary, so all the compounds can be analyzed in a single run. In addition, compound confirmation and qualitative information of unknown peaks can also be obtained.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Screening for Pesticides in Medical Marijuana Using Triple-Quadrupole GC-MS/MS (SSI)
Application Data Sheet No. 106 showed that it is possible to simultaneously analyze 477 components with high sensitivity and high accuracy by using a measurement program created using Smart MRM. However, there were still cases where matrix interference was unavoidable even when using highly selective MRM analysis. Therefore, this Application Data Sheet presents results from analysis using two columns with different separation characteristics: a general-purpose 5 % phenyl / 95 % methylpolysiloxane column and a trifluoropropyl methyl polysiloxane column. By using the Twin Line MS System, both of these columns can be installed in the same GC-MS/MS system at the same time for continuous analysis without having to release the vacuum or replace columns.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Simultaneous Analysis of 477 Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Crops Using GC-MS/MS - Part 2 (Japan)
GC-MS/MS systems can measure more than 400 residual pesticides in foods. However, analyzing more than 400 pesticides simultaneously requires a short dwell time (data loading time) during MRM measurements, which results in problems with inadequate sensitivity and the tedious process of creating MRM measurement programs. Consequently, several different methods are used for target pesticides and the same sample is measured multiple times to analyze all components. That can decrease productivity, due to the time required for analyzing all the components involved in the large number of pesticides being inspected. This Application Data Sheet describes a solution to these problems with the creation of a method for simultaneously analyzing 477 components and evaluating the resulting sensitivity and accuracy.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Fast and Accurate Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols and Acrylates using Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS (SAP)
Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are utilised as oil and water repellents in consumer products. However, its extensive use in products such as textiles has raised environmental concerns, as residual fluorotelomer alcohols and acrylates (FTOHs and FTAs) from FTPs are considered as probable precursors of bioaccumulative and potentially toxic per uorocarboxylic acids. Traditionally, the determination of FTOHs has been performed using single quadrupole GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode. Although CI can achieve sensitive detection limits (less than 20 fg/ul for FTOHs), it is sometimes avoided due to higher upkeep and running cost than electron ionization (EI) systems. Furthermore, EI is a more comprehensive analytical solution than CI in applications. This motivated the use of GC-MS/MS system in EI mode in this study.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Quantitative Determination of Dioxins in Drinking Water by Isotope Dilution using Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS (SAP)
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), generally termed as dioxins, are persistent organic pollutants. Their stabilities have been accumulating to environmental problems. In addition to the gas chromatograph coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) system, EU regulation 589/2014 has included the use of tandem mass-spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) system as a confirmatory method for determination of dioxins in feed and food. This motivates the use of the inexpensive and user-friendly GC-MS/MS system to identify and quantify dioxins. In this study, we report a method developed with the cost-effective triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS system for high sensitivity detection and quantification of dioxins in water samples, as a proposed alternative to the EPA method 1613 with a change of detector.
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Multi Pesticides Residue analysis in Ayurvedic cough Syrup by GCMS/MS using QuEChERS’ extraction method
Ayurveda is a Sanskrit term, which means ‘science of life’. In India, Ayurveda has been long practiced for medicinal purpose. Majority of it’s preparations involve presence of plants, herbs etc. For the normal, disease-free growth of these plants and herbs, pesticides are widely used. Some of these pesticides can act as toxins to animals & humans when consumed even as residues. Hence, it becomes important to quantitate the pesticides at residual levels in orally consumed preparations, especially which involve plant materials such as Ayurvedic cough syrups.QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged & Safe) method was used for extraction and clean-up of the sample followed by analysis using GCMS-TQ8040 Triple Quadrupole (GCMS/MS) system from Shimadzu Corporation, Japan.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using MRM via GC-MS/MS
GC#27;MS provides excellent chromatographic separation, and is capable of highly sensitive and stable measurements. Consequently, GC#27;MS is widely utilized when measuring low#27;molecular#27;weight metabolites in living organisms and performing metabolomicanalysis to assess their fluctuations. When analyzing biological samples featuring a large number of matrix components, however, separation from the matrix can be difficult using GC#27;MS. An alternative is GC#27;MS/MS, which provides excellent separation performance via MS. In this Application Datasheet, an analysis of metabolites in rat urine is performed using GC#27;MS/MS. Results comparing this data with GC#27;MS data are also introduced.
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Analysis of PBDEs in Sediment Using GC-MS/MS
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs) widely used in plastics. Due to their toxicity and persistence, their industrial production is to be eliminated under the Stockholm Convention. Contamination from PBDEs is widespread in the environment, including in sediments. In order to determine PBDEs in sediments, they need to be separated from a large amount of interferences co-extracted during sample preparation. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS were evaluated for this purpose.
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Analysis of Residual Pesticides in Processed Foods Using GC-MS/MS
This application datasheet presents a study of an analysis of residual pesticides in retort-pouched curry (curry packaged in a sealed pouch) using QuEChERS and GC-MS/MS. QuEChERS method is commonly used for extraction and cleanup of food products prior to GC/MS/MS analysis, due to its speed and simplicity, while GCMS/MS is able to selectively separate residual pesticides from a large quantity of co-extracted substances.
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GC-MS/MS analysis of residual pesticides in spinach using Scan/MRM (2)
The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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GC-MS/MS analysis of residual pesticides in spinach using Scan/MRM
The triple-quad GCMS-TQ8030 is equipped with a scan/MRM mode that allows simultaneous full-scan and MRM data measurements. With this mode, target compounds are selectively determined from a MRM data and unknown compounds are identified from a full-scan data, respectively. This Application Data Sheet demonstrates the effectiveness of the scan/MRM mode when analyzing residual pesticides in a vegetable after QuEChERS extraction.
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GC-MS/MS Analysis of Pesticides in Drinking Water
According to Japan’s list of drinking water quality control substances, pesticides are included as supplemental items subject to analysis. Designed to complement the standards, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare encourages water utilities to monitor pesticide levels and achieve specified targets. Among the 102 listed pesticides, 84 are simultaneously analyzed using solid-phase extraction and GC-MS. In this datasheet, those pesticides were analyzed using GC-MS/MS and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (1)
This Application Data Sheet reports on MRM sensitivity and analytical repeatability when using simultaneous scan/MRM measurements with respect to PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. Application Data Sheet No. 79 presents an example of the quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides by using the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements of a river water sample. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 features an example of screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (2)
This data sheet introduces an example of the accurate quantification of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in river water using the analytical conditions for simultaneous scan/MRM measurements introduced in Application Data Sheet No. 78. It presents sensitivity and repeatability results for PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in MRM mode, acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements, in Application Data Sheet No. 78. In addition, Application Data Sheet No. 80 introduces an example of the screening for environmental pollutants not suited to MRM measurement by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired with simultaneous scan/MRM measurements.
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Analysis of PCBs and Organochlorinated Pesticides in River Water Using Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurement in GC/MS/MS (3)
This Application Data Sheet introduces an example of screening for environmental pollutants other than PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, which are targeted for MRM measurements, by applying Compound Composer Database Software to the scan data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements. Also introduced is an accurate trace quantitation analysis of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides with the MRM data acquired in simultaneous scan/MRM measurements in Application Data Sheets No. 78 and No. 79.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (2)
The GCMS-TQ8030 is a GC-MS/MS system equipped with Scan/MRM mode to allow simultaneous Scan and MRM data measurements. Using Scan/MRM mode, it is possible to perform high-sensitivity analysis through high selectivity via MRM, while simultaneously performing qualitative analysis utilizing the mass spectrum via Scan.
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Analysis of Chelate Compounds Through Direct Sample Introduction
Chelate compounds are generally refractory compounds composed of ligands and metal ions. Therefore, they are difficult to measure with gas chromatographs. To obtain an electron ionization mass spectrum of refractory compounds requires a pure sample that should be introduced by direct introduction (DI). In this Application Datasheet, a chelate with ring-shaped phthalocynanine ligands, which are cross linked to four phthalic imides by nitrogen atoms, is measured using the DI method.
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Analysis of Dibutyltin Compounds in Polyvinyl Chloride Products by GC/MS
Organotin compounds are used widely throughout the world in pesticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, and adhesives. Since organotin compounds are also added to plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for thermal stabilization and stabilization against catalytic activity, dibutyltin (DBT) compounds in PVC are now subject to a standard limit established in Japan's Food Sanitation Act. In the material testing1) of this material in its food packaging form, the DBT peak elution time and area value in the test solution and standard solution are compared, and the peak area in the test solution must be smaller than that in the standard solution (concentration of 50 μg/g or less in sample; corresponding to a concentration of 1 μg/mL standard solution). In this Application News, we introduce an example of analysis of DBT compounds in a PVC product.
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Search of Polymer Additives Using Mass Spectral Libraries
Commercial MS libraries can be used to identify compounds detected using GC/MS. Such MS libraries include the NIST spectral library (spectra for 160,000 compounds) and the Wiley spectral library (310,000 spectra). In addition, a specific MS library (ADD-MS06 Library: Frontier Laboratories Ltd.) has recently been developed for polymer additives. This library consists of the mass spectra and retention indices (RI) of the main peaks and pyrograms observed following Pyrolysis (Py)-GC/MS (pyrolysis at 600°C) of the 329 main commercial organic additives. This Application News introduces an investigation using the abovementioned three libraries to identify the additives contained in various polymers.
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Higher Sensitivity Analysis of 2-Methoxy-3-Isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in Wine Using GC-MS/MS(PCI)
2-Methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) is an aromatic substance with the fragrance of bell peppers. It is found in sauvignon blanc (a type of grape used for white wine) and cabernet sauvignon (a type of grape used for red wine), and gives the wines a favorable aroma. MIBP, which has a significant impact on the flavor of wine, has an extremely low threshold value in sensory tests, on the order of a few ng/L. Since wine contains many components, concentration and selective separation & detection are essential to analysis.
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GCMS-QP2010 SE Application 3rd Party- Drinking Water Analysis Conditions for USEPA Method 524.3 With EST Evolution P & T - Addendum Data Tables (EST)
In recent years, elemental analysis by EDX has been increasing due to the heightened concern for the environment. Even waste oil can quickly and easily be analyzed by EDX by merely pouring it as is into a container. We evaluated the repeatability and limit of detection in analysis using new, unused commercially available general oil that is similar waste oil, using the EDX-7000. The results demonstrated an improvement in sensitivity that was 1.5 to 4 times that obtained with the conventional model while achieving a shorter measurement time for each sample.
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Quantitative Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds in Drinking Water by EPA Method with Headspace Trap GC-MS
This application shows that the HS-20 Trap mode is a viable alternative method in analysis of VOCs following EPA 524.3. The correlation coefficient, recovery and RSD obtained in this study complies with EPA Method 524.3. This application shows that the HS-20 Trap mode is a viable alternative method in analysis of VOCs following EPA 524.3. The correlation coefficient, recovery and RSD obtained in this study complies with EPA Method 524.3.
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GCMS-TQ8040 3rd Party Application - Comparing Headspace Sampling to Distilled Essential Oils for Qualitative Predictions in Catnip Plants (Rutgers)
Due to the diverse chemical profiles and economic potential of catnip plants for various industries, fresh and dried leaves were independently subjected to headspace sampling to determine if this approach could be used to predict the composition of the hydrodistilled essential oils. A Shimadzu GC 2010 Plus was used for separation, TQ8040 MS was used for compound identification with a AOC-6000 auto sampler and headspace analyzer. Separation of all nepetalactone isomers was achieved in all samples. Relative ratios of the compounds in the essential oils changed during processing. Genetic, environmental or horticultural techniques may have influenced this and crop specific systems should be developed to monitor different aromatic species accordingly throughout their growing season.
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GCMS-TQ8040 3rd Party Application - Characterization and stability on aromatic compounds in grape juice by HS-GC/MS (Rutgers)
With increasing interest into the health promoting properties of grape derived products, such as grape juice, wine, and grape seed extract, there exists a fundamental quality control concern due to the complex composition of natural products. A variety of polyphenols including proanthocyanidins with differing degrees of polymerization and phenolic-acids are responsible for the health benefits attributed to grape-derived products. Given no regulated or standardized method for analysis and use in product specifications for grape derived products, there is a large amount of variation in the composition of grape juice products available in the marketplace. The goal of this work was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes that occur in grape juice samples over time such that markers for degradation and fermentation could be identified. This will allow future batches of grape juice used in our lab to be profiled for quality.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Application for Plant Metabolome Analysis Using the GC/MS/MS Smart Metabolites Database
The GC/MS/MS Smart Metabolites Database contains analytical conditions for the high-sensitivity detection of 475 metabolites commonly involved in the central metabolism of all biological organisms. Using this database, 170 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, were detected in mature tomato leaves. Furthermore, by verifying the analytical accuracy of an internal standard substance, ribitol, based on the relative elution time, detection intensity, and reference ion ratio, we confirmed that it is possible to quantitatively detect metabolites with a high level of accuracy.
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Analysis of Metabolites in Rat Urine Using Scan/MRM via GC-MS/MS (2)
This Application Datasheet introduces the results of Scan/MRM measurements of metabolites extracted from rat urine. Five target components are measured with MRM, and unknown peaks are identified through a library search of the mass spectrum obtained with Scan.
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GC Application - Measurement of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals by Headspace GC - USP <467> Residual Solvents - Procedure A (HS-20, Japan)
For the determination of heavy metal content in tobacco and tobacco products, several spectroscopic methods can be applied. For instance, using atomic absorption spectrometers such as the Shimadzu AA-6800.
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GC Application - Measurement of Residual Solvents in Pharmaceuticals by Headspace GC - USP <467> Residual Solvents - Procedure B (HS-20, Japan)
This Application Data Sheet presents data obtained using the Shimadzu HS-20 Headspace Sampler and Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus Gas Chromatograph, from Class 1 and Class 2 standard solutions, in accordance with Water-Soluble Articles, Procedure A, in USP <467> Residual Solvents.
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Analysis of VOCs in Water Using Headspace-GC/MS
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in water are regulated by environmental water quality laws or standards because of health hazard factors. Purge and trap methods and Headspace methods are commonly used for analysis of VOCs because of their sensitivity and ease of use. This application presents an example of analysis of VOCs in drinking water using the Shimadzu HS-20 headspace sampler.
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Analysis of Rubber by Pyrolysis-GC/MS -Introduction of Detector Splitting System-
Here we introduce an example of analysis focusing on sulfur compounds in rubber by pyrolysis-GC/MS using a system in which a mass spectrometer (MS) is connected as detector 1, and the high sensitivity sulfur detector, FPD (S-mode), is connected as detector 2.
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Ultra-Fast Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in Water By Headspace-GC/MS/MS
This study presents analysis conditions for 25 VOCs covering a range of volatility, using static headspace as the sample introduction technique, with GC/MS/MS operated in the MRM mode for detection and quantitation. Use of a short, narrow-bore capillary column permitted analysis of 8 samples per hour, or approximately one sample every 7 minutes.
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GC-MS/MS Analysis of PAH and PCB in environmental samples
The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are among the most commonly analysed compound classes in environmental analysis. This article demonstrates how hydrogen carrier gas can be used in place of helium for GC-MS/MS analysis of these compounds.
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Analysis of Residual Solvents – Class 1, Class 2A, Class 2B – in Pharmaceuticals Using Headspace-GC/MS
Using the HS-GC/MS method, simultaneous analysis of USP <467> Class 1, Class 2A, and Class 2B compounds was demonstrated without compromising separation, repeatability, or analysis accuracy.
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A fast, easy and “green” thermal desorption-GC/MS method for the analysis of phthalate esters in PVC
A discussion of the central factors that influence data quality when using ASTM D7823-13(1) for the determination of phthalates in polymeric substrates
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Using Headspace SPME-GC×GC–quadMS for the Characterization of Marsala Wine (Japan)
Plasma is an important matrix to measure the exposure of the drug prior to elimination. Clinical research often requires that drug concentrations in blood be monitored. The capability of the LCMS-8050 to detect low concentrations of drugs in plasma was evaluated.
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Increased Sensitivity and Reduced Matrix Interference over Current Pharmacopoeia Methods for 74 Pesticides in Chinese Herbal Medicine using On‐line GPC‐GC‐MS/MS
A method for quantitative analysis of 74 pesticides in Chinese herbal medicine by GPC-GCMSMS according to the forthcoming Chinese pharmacopoeia (2015) was successfully applied.
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ICP Application - ICP Analysis of Hazardous Elements in Gelatin
This Application News introduces the usefulness of the forensic substance library in this GC/MS Forensic Toxicological Database.
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Analysis of Phenols in Drinking Water Using Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS (LCMS-8040)
Here, we introduce an example of phenol analysis by UHPLC/MS/MS. Unlike the use of GC/MS for this analysis, LC/MS/MS does not require derivatization, and therefore simplifies the analysis process
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FTIR Application - Hardness DUH-211S Application - Investigation of the Deterioration of UV-Irradiated Resin by FTIR and DUH-211S Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester - No. A433
This Application News introduces an example of GC-FID analysis of 6 phthalate esters in toys. For an example of GC/MS analysis of the same sample, refer to Shimadzu Application News No. M261 “Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC/MS.
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UV-Vis Application - UV Talk Letter - (1) BioSpec-nano Life Science UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (2) Nucleic Acid Thermal Stability Analysis (Tm Analysis ) V7 C101-E120
The USEPA developed Method 8260B for the determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in an array of waste matrices. Over the years, there have been many advances in purge and trap sampling and GCMS analysis. There advances have aided in carryover reduction, water management and reduced method detection levels. This paper will present the optimum purge and trap and GCMS parameters used to generate both soil and water USEPA Method 8260B data.
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X-Ray Application - EDX - EDXRF Analysis of Precious Metal
Volatile compounds, including aroma compounds, in Parmesan and Blue cheese were analyzed using adsorption and thermal desorption GC/MS (TD-GC/MS). MonoTrap was used as adsorbant. It is a state-of-theart silica monolithic and hybrid adsorbent having a large surface area and properties based on silica, activated carbon (graphite carbon for Mono Trap TD) and the octadecyl functional group. GC-MS equipped with the OPTIC-4 multi-purpose injector was used for thermal desorption. The OPTIC-4 allows direct introduction of desorbed gas into a capillary column without re-adsorption.
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TOC Application - Carbon dioxide determination in beer (Germany)
This Application Data Sheet reports on results with respect to a method for quantitating haloalcohols (2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-iodoethanol) and glycidol in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) utilizing the GCMS system. For the analysis conditions as well as the total ion current chromatogram and mass spectra for the haloalcohols and glycidol, refer to GCMS Application Data Sheet No. 41, "Analysis of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (3), Analysis of Haloalcohols and Glycidol Part 1."
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GCMS-TQ8040 3rd Party Application - Effect of pelletization on qualitative aromatic profiles of hops and its essential oils (Rutgers)
Hops (Humulus lupulus) is a commercially important herbs which has undergone extensive breeding to produce numerous distinguishable varieties. The relationships between these varieties have traditionally been described by genealogy. We believe a more meaningful understanding of similarity and difference between varieties for human use can be understood by comparison of the major chemical constituents of essential oils and aromas characteristic to each variety. An understanding of varieties by their chemiometric character will prove to be a much more useful insight into variety relationships and allow for more informed choices when attempting to achieve desired product characteristics. In pursuing this Hops data we also investigated the differences in the chemical profiles between whole flowers and pelletized flowers to understand the effect of processing on constituents. Gas chromatography was utilized to achieve this comparison.
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GCMS-TQ8040 Application - Characterization of Wines Produced from Fungus Resistant Grapes (Germany)
The vineyards of the Styrian wine region are located in the southern part of Austria close to the Slovenian border covering approximately 4.500 hectares. Predominantly steep slopes are cultivated with inclinations up to 60%. This area is a classical cool-climate region with an average annual temperature of 10.5°C and precipitation of approximately 1.000 mm per year. Main rainfall months are especially May, June, July & ,August and September in which 55 to 70% of the annual precipitation falls. The mechanical management of the steep slopes is difficult and quite dangerous, too. The establishment of fungus- resistant grape varietals can clearly reduce plant protection efforts and also brings economic advantages. First experiments with fungus resistant grape varieties date back to the early '80s. Most varieties of the initial trials were not accepted by the consumers due to their sensory properties. The recent generation of fungus-resistant grape varietals show much more compromising results and a higher acceptance on the market.
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LCMS/GCMS Application - Classification of Beer Types Using Metabolic Profiling (Japan)
In food science, global metabolite analysis, or ‘metabolomics’, is increasingly applied to a number of value-added food production areas including food-safety assessment, quality control, food authenticity, origin and processing. GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS are widely used for measuring the total amount of metabolites in a sample. Selection of the appropriate instrument to be used is based on the target compounds and the objective. In this study, a mass spectrometry–based metabolomics approach was applied to differentiate and classify five types of beer (two lager beers, an ale type beer, a beer-taste alcoholic beverage and a beer-taste non-alcoholic beverage). GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS techniques were used to target amino acids, organic acids, sugar and nucleic acid-related compounds which are known to be the compounds associated with sweetness, bitterness and perceived flavor in food and beverages. Statistical analysis of the detected compounds by PCA and HCA clearly differentiated five types of beer.
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New Applications for Multidimensional Gas Chromatography
Multidimensional chromatography is the utilization of multiple columns to enhance difficult separations. For a complex mixture there may not be a single column that resolves all the peaks of interest. A better separation may be possible using two columns of different polarity. In this poster, analysis examples using the MDGC/GCMS system, which utilizes a multi-Deans switch, are presented.
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GC Application - Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC-FID
This Applications News introduces an example of GC/MS Analysis of 6 phthalate esters in toys. For an example of GC-FID analysis of the same sample, refer to Shimadzu Application News No G275 “Analysis of 6 Phthalate Esters in Polyvinyl Chloride Toys by GC-FID”.
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LCMS-8030/8040 Application - Setting Optimum Dwell, Pause, and Scan Event Times on the Shimadzu-8030 (SSI)
Amino acids contained in a sports drink were treated with EZ:faastTM (Phenomenex, Inc.), which enables easy pretreatment, and then analyzed by GC-MS.
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ICP Application - Analysis of Additive Elements in Lubricating Oil using ICPE-9000
The LC/MS(/MS) method eliminates the solvent extraction and derivatization steps currently conducted as part of the GC/MS method, and requires only the direct injection of the sample into the LC/MS.
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LCMS-IT-TOF Application - Identification of novel pyrimidine ring cleavage metabolites of Buspirone via Spectral Similarity correlation score (UK)
In this Application Datasheet, an analysis of metabolites in rat urine is performed using GC-MS/MS. Results comparing this data with GC-MS data are also introduced.
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Prominence Application - High Sensitivity Quantitative Analysis of Trace Level Impurities and Active Ingredients with HPLC
This Application Data Sheet shows the results from analyzing HBCDD in polymers under the same analytical conditions as those in Application Data Sheet 47 using the EGA/PY-3030D Multi-Shot Pyrolyzer and GCMS-QP2020 Ultra.
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MALDI-MegaTOF Application - Aggregate Analysis Using AXIMA MegaTOF (SSI)
This application data sheet presents an analysis of metabolites in standard human serum using the scan and MRM methods included in the GC/MS Metabolite Database Ver. 2, as well as a comparison of the results.
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AA Application - Determination of Dimethylpolysiloxanes in Oils using Atomic Absorption
This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of a common narcotic, hydrocodone, using the isotope dilution technique paired with the specificity of the MRM analysis mode of the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS (Figure 1). Internal standard calibration of codeine and oxycodone was also included in the study.
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[ARCHIVED] Restek Guide Halo.pdf
This Data Sheet presents an example of the analysis of unknown peaks in a test for residual solvents in pharmaceuticals, using analysis columns that complies with USP467 Procedure A for residual solvents, utilizing the Shimadzu HS-20 Trap headspace sampler, which features a trapping function, and the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.
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LCMS-8040 Application - LC-MS Analysis of Amino Acids on a Novel Mixed-Mode HPLC Column (Non-derivatized) (SSI)
In this application more than 50 samples of different matrices were split and analysed by the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and the Waters Autospec GCHRMS.
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ICP Application - ICP Analysis of Drinking Water
Here, we introduce an example of phenol analysis by UHPLC/MS/MS. Unlike the use of GC/MS for this analysis, LC/MS/MS does not require derivatization, and therefor simplifies the analysis process.
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Spectroscopic Analysis of Wines for Authenticity and Trichloranisole(TCA) Contamination
ICP-OES is a fast and reliable tool for determination of heavy metals in wine and packaging material. Furthermore the HS-trap GC/MS system is a high sensitivity method for monitoring trichloroanisole in wine in order to guarantee the highest level of quality and safety according to the European wine regulations.
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Analysis of Dietary Supplements
Analytical Instrumentation & Software for the Evaluation, Identification and QA/QC of Dietary Supplements
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Selective Detection Using Neutral Loss Scan in GC-MS/MS
Neutral loss scan is a measuring mode of GC-MS/MS and is used to study a class of compounds showing a common neutral molecule loss during CID (Collision-Induced Dissociation). Both Q1 and Q3 are scanned with a fixed m/z difference corresponding to the neutral fragment during the CID. This application datasheet presents the results from measuring PCBs in transformer oil by neutral loss scanning.
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Analysis of Psychotropic Drugs in Whole Blood Utilizing Simultaneous Scan/MRM Measurements (2)
This Application Data Sheet introduces the application of scan data from simultaneous scan/MRM measurement to the Forensic Toxicological Database, leading to comprehensive screening for medicinal toxicants in a whole blood sample. Please refer to this in conjunction with Application Datasheet No. 74, which introduces an example of the mass separation of cholesterol from triazolam and etizolam in whole blood, utilizing MRM data from simultaneous Scan/MRM analysis.
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Method Development for Trace Level Detection of N-Nitrosamines in Beer by GC-MS/MS
In Forensic Toxicology, LC/MS/MS has become a preferred method for the routine quantitative and qualitative analysis of drugs of abuse. LC/MS/MS allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple compounds in a single run, thus enabling a fast and high throughput analysis. But a pretreatment is the most critical step in forensic analysis. In this study, we report a developed analytical system using a modified QuEChERS* extraction method for pretreatment in forensic analysis by high-speed triple quadrupole mass spectrometry
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Analysis of Pesticides in Food Matrix using QuEChERS by Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS
Inspection results for 138 pesticides using GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS have been reported by the EURL (European Union Reference Laboratory). Of the 138 substances, it was recommended that 66 of those substances be analyzed using the triple quadrupole GC/MS/MS, and that the remaining 72 substances be analyzed by the triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Thus, the pesticides were analyzed using the GCMSTQ8030 and LCMS-8040 as recommended. The combined use of GC/MS/MS and LC/MS/MS permits high-sensitivity comprehensive analysis of residual pesticides in foods.
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Analysis of MOSH and MOAH using SPE prior to GC×GC-MS analysis
The present work is focused on the development/optimization of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method, with dual detection [flame ionization (FID) and mass spectrometric], for the simultaneous identification and quantification of mineral-oil contaminants in a variety of food products. The two main classes of contaminants, namely saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, were previously fractionated on a manually-packed silver silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The presence of a series of unknown compounds was investigated using the mass spectrometric data, and were tentatively-identified as esterified fatty acids, most probably derived from vegetable oil based ink.
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Systematic screening for basic and acidic drugs in urine using Ultrafast-GCMSMS in MRM-scan mode – Part 1
We report a GC-EI-MSMS method using MRMs for the detection of targeted compounds, the unequivocal confirmation of structure using EI-MS and a background full scan that is useful in detecting the presence of unexpected substances and changes to the normal sample matrix. The method is enabled by the use of a UFMS capable GCMSMS system that is capable of supporting simultaneous MRM-scan-PIS.
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Quantitative Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardant by Thermal Desorption-GC Technique
Brominated flame retardants are widely used and contained in electric and electronic devices, and are to be controlled under the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS directive). If the quantitative analysis of them is done by thermal desorption-GC technique (TD-GC), a various measurement parameters need to be optimized. Fig. 1 shows the construction of the TD-GC system. In this report, the temperature optimization for Py-GC interface (ITF) and GC injection port is described.
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Analysis of Brominated Flame Retardant in a Waste Plastics by Thermal Desorption-GC/MS Technique
A TD-GC system in which a Double-Shot Pyrolyzer® was directly attached to the split/splitless injection port of a GC was used. A polystyrene (PS) based waste plastic containing brominated flame retardants was used as a sample, and an aliquot (5 µL) of THF solution (10 µg/µL) was placed in a sample cup for analysis. The temperature of the PY-GC interface and the GC injection port was set to 320ºC, at which temperature no absorption or thermal decomposition of DeBDE has been reported.1) A metal capillary column specifically designed for brominated flame retardants 2) [Ultra ALLOY-PBDE] with highly deactivated inner wall was used.
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Simultaneous Analysis of 477 Residual Pesticides in Agricultural Crops Using GC-MS/MS
GC-MS/MS systems can measure more than 400 residual pesticides in foods. However, analyzing more than 400 pesticides simultaneously requires a short dwell time (data loading time) during MRM measurements, which results in problems with inadequate sensitivity and the tedious process of creating MRM measurement programs. Consequently, several different methods are used for target pesticides and the same sample is measured multiple times to analyze all components. That can decrease productivity, due to the time required for analyzing all the components involved in the large number of pesticides being inspected. This Application Data Sheet describes a solution to these problems with the creation of a method for simultaneously analyzing 477 components and evaluating the resulting sensitivity and accuracy.
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Investigating Food Quality Evaluation_ Complete Analysis of Aroma Compounds and Metabolites in Food (Japan)
There are a wide variety of methods of ensuring food quality evaluation, and which method is used depends on the food type and purpose of examination. An evaluation method widely implemented in recent years has been to analyze all various compounds present in food, then to use multivariate analysis to find trends in these compounds that can be linked to food quality. Much research is being conducted into the measurement of all aroma compounds and metabolites present in food, using these results as an indicator of food qualities such as flavor, functionality and deterioration.
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Application for Plant Metabolome Analysis Using the GC/MS/MS Smart Metabolites Database
The GC/MS/MS Smart Metabolites Database contains analytical conditions for the high-sensitivity detection of 475 metabolites commonly involved in the central metabolism of all biological organisms. Using this database, 170 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, and sugars, were detected in mature tomato leaves. Furthermore, by verifying the analytical accuracy of an internal standard substance, ribitol, based on the relative elution time, detection intensity, and reference ion ratio, we con#31;rmed that it is possible to quantitatively detect metabolites with a high level of accuracy.
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Investigating Food Quality Evaluation: Complete Analysis of Aroma Compounds and Metabolites in Food
This application news presents the results of an experiment that set out to measure aroma compounds and metabolites present in sake, and investigated which of these compounds could be used to distinguish between different sake types. Three commercially available sakes, including a normal quality sake (futsu-shu), a sake made with rice and malted rice (junmai-shu), and sake made with the rice polished to at least 50% (diaginjo-shu), where analyzed for aroma compounds and metabolites. The main compounds found in these sakes were then identified and analyzed further. We were able to clearly separate a pattern of detected compounds in these three types of sake.
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Analysis of a Gas Emitted from Polystyrene Using the Thermal Desorption Method
Generally, in analyzing gases emitted from a sample, the sample is first loaded into a chamber and Tedlar bag, where it is sealed and then heated. Afterwards, the gas emitted is concentrated in a collection tube, and then analyzed using the thermal desorption method. With the TD-20 thermal desorption system, the sample is loaded directly into a glass tube exclusively designed for the TD-20 (P/N: 223-57119), and the gas emitted when the sample is heated can be analyzed without utilizing a chamber. This not only reduces the amount of work required when sampling, but also reduces the loss of high boiling-point substances because the flow line has been significantly shortened. In this experiment, 0.5 mg of polystyrene was loaded into a glass tube for the TD-20. Both ends of the tube were fastened with 5 mg of quartz wool. The gas emitted when the sample was heated at 250oC for 30 minutes was then analyzed, and the total ion current chromatogram (TIC) obtained is shown below. It can be confirmed that, in addition to the polystyrene monomer styrene, dimer, trimers, and tretramers were produced when the sample was heated at 250 ℃.
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GCMS-QP2010 Ultra Application - A Closer Look at Mineral Oil Fractions (Germany)
A currently heavy discussed theme in the field of packed food concerns mineral oil residues of different sources. The mineral oils fractions can be described by their chemical properties, so a MOSH and a MOAH fraction can be found (MOAH – mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons and MOAH – mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons). MOSH consist of linear and branched alkanes, and alkyl substituted cycloalkanes, whilst MOAH include mainly alkyl-substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons up to four aromatic rings. The main focus is thereby on the aromatic fraction, covering about 15-30% of the whole aromatic fraction, which is suspected to include potential carcinogenic and mutagenic constituents. Nevertheless the methods which are normally used lacking specific information of the composition of the mineral oils constituents. A common method uses the combination of HPLC and GC (either on-line or off-line) with non specific FID detection which quantifies only the total concentration of MOSH and MOAH. FID is used due its universal detection principle which eliminates structural influence of different molecules. In addition the methods uses a large volume injection with quite a steep temperature ramp resulting in broad unresolved humps.
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High-Sensitivity Analysis of Nonylphenol in River Water Using GC-MS/MS
Nonylphenol (NP) is used as a raw material for the production of surfactants, and as an antioxidant used to protect rubber and plastics, etc. However, in recent years, it has been specified as a substance that can cause endocrine disruption in the environment (environmental hormone). NP, a type of alkylphenol, can theoretically exist as 211 structural isomers. Among these, the main component that is generated by the reaction of nonene (trimer of propylene) with phenol is the branched 4-nonylphenyl (4-NP). We investigated the use of a high m/z selectivity triple quadrupole gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS). By optimizing the MS/MS analytical conditions, selective detection of thirteen 4-NP isomers was achieved with high sensitivity. Further, in the analysis of NP in river water, which typically contains many contaminants, analysis was possible without adversely affecting identification accuracy, even when omitting the cleanup procedure that may reduce the recovery rate.
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Fast and Accurate Analysis of Fluorotelomer Alcohols and Acrylates using Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS;
Fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTPs) are utilised as oil and water repellents in consumer products. However, its extensive use in products such as textiles has raised environmental concerns, as residual #31;uorotelomer alcohols and acrylates (FTOHs and FTAs) from FTPs are considered as probable precursors of bioaccumulative and potentially toxic per#31;uorocarboxylic acids [1,2,3]. Traditionally, the determination of FTOHs has been performed using single quadrupole GC-MS in chemical ionization (CI) mode [4,5]. Although CI can achieve sensitive detection limits (less than 20 fg/ul for FTOHs), it is sometimes avoided due to higher upkeep and running cost than electron ionization (EI) systems [5]. Furthermore, EI is a more comprehensive analytical solution than CI in applications. This motivated the use of GC-MS/MS system in EI mode in this study.
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Universal Testing EZ-X Application - Cereal Compression -Shear test
According to Japan’s list of drinking water quality control substances, pesticides are included as supplemental items subject to analysis. Designed to complement the standards, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare encourages water utilities to monitor pesticide levels and achieve specified targets. Among the 102 listed pesticides, 84 are simultaneously analyzed using solid-phase extraction and GC-MS. In this datasheet, those pesticides were analyzed using GC-MS/MS and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode.
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[ARCHIVED] Analysis of Acephate in Water Using GC-MS
Detection of impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is often conducted using an HPLC-UV method. However, qualitative and quantitative analysis of impurities requires not only the separation of the impurities from the major component, but also separation among impurities themselves. The time and effort required to establish effective analytical conditions for this type of analysis are significant. Furthermore, the source of the impurity, whether it be the sample itself or some external factor associated with a particular lot, must also be determined. Here we demonstrate analysis of an impurity in an API using the 2-dimensional LC/MS/MS separation feature of the Co-Sense for Impurities System.
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LCMS-8030/8040 Application - Analysis of Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using the Co-Sense for Impurities System (Japan)
2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) emitted from wine corks can taint wine and cause an objectionable odor. Due to the low threshold value for sensing the odor, highly sensitive measurements are required for monitoring. Conventionally, TCA was measured using methods such as purge and trap, which is very effective in concentrating samples, or thermal desorption. The HS-20 headspace sampler includes a trap function that is able to concentrate headspace gases. This Data Sheet describes an example of high-sensitivity measurement of TCA in wine using an HS-trap GC/MS system.
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Nexera Application - Detection of Non-Separated Impurities by i-PDeA
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) is a technique widely used in this sector, however with analysis runs that may take several hours to complete, and with repeat testing often needed, the market is inevitably calling for increased speed from both preparation methods and instrumentation. As regulations tighten, this speed must still be achieved without any loss of sensitivity and without compromising accuracy or reproducibility. Here we explore some of the latest technology enabling analysts to meet these heightened requirements.
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GC Application - Analysis of Alcohol Compounds in Blood (2) (Japan)
The cellular lipids were extracted from frozen pellets of human ES (embryonic stem) cells, and the constituent fatty acids were esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters. GC/MS analysis of the methylated fatty acids resulted in identification of 19 types of fatty acids. This report introduces the pretreatment protocol used to extract the lipids from the cells, and the fatty acids that can be analyzed by this process.
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ICP Application - ICP Analysis of Corn Oil
A variety of analytical methods are utilized to measure reaction products in research into artificial photosynthesis, in which high-energy substances are manufactured using photo catalysts and solar energy. These methods include GC, HPLC, and absorption photometry. Experiments utilizing isotope-labeled samples are an effective way of confirming and clarifying reaction mechanisms. Mass spectrometers demonstrate their worth in such measurements. This Data Sheet presents an example of the use of GC-MS to measure carbon monoxide, methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and other substances generated in carbon dioxide photo catalytic reduction under a methanol environment.
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LCMS-8050 Application - The Application of UHPLC and Ultrafast-LCMSMS to the Analysis of Small Volume Biological Samples for Drug Residues (Austrailia)
This application note presents instrument configuration, operating parameters, and analytical results for analysis of trace levels of 47 pesticides of various chemical classes in four orange oil samples using the Shimadzu GCMS-TQ8030 triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS. Results were evaluated for calibration linearity, analytical precision, sensitivity, and specificity.
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LCMS-8050 Application - A Rapid and Reproducible Immuno-MS Platform from Sample Collection to Quantitation of IgG (SSI)
This application news aims to provide a general model on using GC-MS to determine the amount of VOCs in water-based paints and varnishes, in anticipation of any emerging regulations in the near future. Referring to the method described in ISO 11890-2:2013, thirty-five commonly used solvents in water-based paints and varnishes are analyzed and quantified.
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Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Analysis of Polyphenols in Red Wine Using Nexera-e Coupled with SPD-M30A (Japan)
This application note describes tuning conditions for the Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 SE (Figure 1) developed to meet the BFB relative abundance criteria described in US EPA methods for analysis of VOCs. Results of an extensive evaluation of the instrument stability using the recommended tune conditions, and a description of the various tune parameter settings are included.
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LCMS-8050 Application - Quantitative Analysis of Veterinary Drugs Using the Shimadzu LCMS-8050 Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (Japan)
Due to their low polarity, pyrethoid pesticides are typically measured by GC and GC-MS, however this Application News demonstrates simultaneous positive and negative-ion mode analysis of 14 pyrethroid pesticides using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI).
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Quantitative Analysis of Pyrethroids in Soil and Sediment Using the Shimadzu LCMS-8050 Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer
Pyrethroid pesticides are used widely around the world as agricultural and household insecticides. Synthetic pyrethroids are slightly soluble in water and easily adsorbed in soil. In recent years, pyrethroid residues have been confirmed in soil and sediment in both agricultural and urban areas. Pyrethroids, while posing little danger to humans, exhibit a high toxicity to aquatic organisms and insects, making their impact on the ecosystem a matter of concern. Therefore, there is a need for a sensitive technique which can rapidly measure pyrethroid pesticides in soil and sediment. Due to their low polarity, pyrethroid pesticides are typically measured by GC and GC-MS, however this Application News demonstrates simultaneous positiveand negative-ion mode analysis of 14 pyrethroid pesticides using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI).
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Efficient extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils for GC/MS and LC/MS analysis using supercritical fluid extractionon
A solvent extraction is commonly used for pretreatment of residual pesticides in foods and soils. In the method, a substantial amount of time and effort are required and large quantities of organic solvents are consumed. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that employs supercritical carbon dioxide as an extraction solvent provides good extraction efficiency due to high diffusivity and solubility. It affords extremely short time as well as less damaging to the environment due to small consumption of organic solvent compared to that of solvent extraction methods. We have developed an efficient SFE system that can perform up to 48 automatic and serial extractions and applied it to extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils.
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Understanding RoHS What it Means to U.S. Manufacturers
With the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) regulations scheduled to take effect in July 2006, there is ongoing concern regarding the readiness of American companies to meet new European standards. Initiated by the European Union, RoHS is a direct response to growing calls for the regulation of materials deemed hazardous (including lead, cadmium, and mercury) in consumer electronic equipment.
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Quantitative Determination of Dioxins in Drinking Water by Isotope Dilution using Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS
In this study, we report a method developed with the cost-effective triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS system for high sensitivity detection and quanti#31;cation of dioxins in water samples, as a proposed alternative to the EPA method 1613 with a change of detector.
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FTIR Application - FTIR Talk Letter - (1) Fourier Transform and Apodization (2) ABC of theFTIR Measurement Methods: Liquid Film Method V15 C103-E083
As of February 2009, the US Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, Section 108, mandated that all manufacturers of children’s toys analyze their products for Phthalate Esters. The method to be used is in accordance with the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). In this study, six phthalate esters in children's toys were measured using the GCMS-QP2010 Ultra. The simultaneous Scan/SIM data acquisition technique was utilized, with the SIM data used for quantitation. The data showed excellent calibration curve linearity and repeatability. In two of the toy samples, unregulated plasticizers were identified by scan data, illustrating the efficiency of simultaneous Scan/SIM measurement.
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LCMS-8050 Application - Analysis of 113 Multi-Class Drugs with Polarity Switching on LCMS-8050 (SSI)
Currently, the analytical technique of choice for the untargeted elucidation of aroma profiles, in foods and drinks, is one-dimensional gas chromatography, hyphenated to a mass spectrometer. It is obvious that GC–MS approaches can give qualitative (and possibly quantitative) information, but nothing on the odour sensation generated by a specific analyte. However, one of the main problems related to the 1D GC analysis of aromas is that such samples are excessively complex for a single GC column. The main consequence of insufficient separation power is that, often, compounds co-elute at the column outlet. In the present report, a head-space (HS) SPME-GC×GC–FID/MS method was developed for the analysis of Marsala wine. The FID trace was exploited for quantification purposes, while the MS data was used for identification.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Efficient extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soild for GC/MS and LC/MS analysis using supercritical fluid extraction (Japan)
A solvent extraction is commonly used for pretreatment of residual pesticides in foods and soils. In the method, a substantial amount of time and effort are required and large quantities of organic solvents are consumed. Supercritical uid extraction (SFE) that employs supercritical carbon dioxide as an extraction solvent provides good extraction ef ciency due to high diffusivity and solubility. It affords extremely short time as well as less damaging to the environment due to small consumption of organic solvent compared to that of solvent extraction methods. We have developed an efficient SFE system that can perform up to 48 automatic and serial extractions and applied it to extraction of residual pesticides in agricultural products and soils.
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LCMS-8060 Application - Supercritical fluid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of hundreds of pesticide residues in food safety (UK)
Analysis of pesticides in food commodities is typically carried out using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These two techniques provide an effective combination for the analysis of pesticides with a broad range of physiochemical properties. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) provides an alternative separation method which uses compressed carbon dioxide in supercritical state as its primary mobile phase. The lower viscosity and high diffusivity of the mobile phase in SFC provides lower back pressures in comparison to LC therefore allowing higher flow rates to be used. In addition SFC has lower aqueous-organic solvent consumption. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the application of SFC-MS/MS for the analysis of a broad range of pesticides. To do this a method was developed for the analysis of 338 pesticides commonly analysed by LC-MS/MS (and GC-MS/MS).
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Supercritical fl#31;uid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of hundreds of pesticide residues in food safety
Analysis of pesticides in food commodities is typically carried out using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These two techniques provide an effective combination for the analysis of pesticides with a broad range of physiochemical properties. Supercritical fl#31;uid chromatography (SFC) provides an alternative separation method which uses compressed carbon dioxide in supercritical state as its primary mobile phase. The lower viscosity and high diffusivity of the mobile phase in SFC provides lower back pressures in comparison to LC therefore allowing higher #31;ow rates to be used. In addition SFC has lower aqueous-organic solvent consumption. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the application of SFC-MS/MS for the analysis of a broad range of pesticides. To do this a method was developed for the analysis of 338 pesticides commonly analysed by LC-MS/MS (and GC-MS/MS).
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LCMS-8050 and IT-TOF Applicaiton - A Comparative Study of Targeted Screening Method by LC/MS/MS and Un-Targeted Screening Method by LC-TOF in Residual Pesticides Analysis (Asia Pacific)
Advanced screening methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for detection of un-predicted residues of pesticides and veterinary drugs in agriculture products and food have been reported in recent years. Without spectrum libraries like in GCMS, LC/MS/MS was initially not used in screening analysis. Whereas, high resolution LC-TOF was selected for screening analysis due to its accurate mass capability. However, with rapid progress in data acquisition technique speed like UFMS (ultrafast MS) and high MRM capacity, new generation triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS has been used for targeted screening, e.g., of over a few hundred of pesticides in one analysis. It is interesting to know the advantages and limitations of the two different screening approaches for pesticide residues in agriculture and food matrixes. We describe here a comparative study on targeted screening analysis based on MRM method on a UFMS-TQ system and un-targeted screening analysis based on high resolution MS full spectrum method on a LC-TOF system using same sample sets of mixed pesticides aiming at unveiling their capabilities and limitations in the challenging screening analysis.
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Unique On-line SFE-SFC-MS/MS for Pesticides Reduces Sample Preparation & Analysis Time while Increasing Sensitivity & Polarity Range
The goal of this poster is to address four areas of improvement for pesticides analysis using on-line Supercritical Fluid Extraction – Supercritical Fluid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (SFE-SFC-MS/MS). Those areas are reduced sample preparation time, faster separation of analytes, increased sensitivity, and analysis of a wider range of analyte polarities. Sample preparation can be reduced from a 35 minute QuEChERS method to a 5 minute method with the patented on-line SFE-SFC interface. Polar compounds typically analyzed by LC-MS/MS can be analyzed faster by SFC-MS/ MS. Sensitivities can be improved over LC-MS/MS methods with the new multi-patented splitless backpressure regulator (BPR). In addition, SFE-SFC-MS/MS enables analysis of a wider range of compounds from non-polar to polar than currently available by GC-MS/ MS or LC-MS/MS. The whole process can be fully automated by adding a 48 sample rack changer on the front end.
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Spectroscopic Analysis of Wines for Authenticity and Trichloranisole (TCA) Contamination (SEG)
Food and drinks are always a hot topic discussion and in the focus of “state of the art” analytical techniques. Food scandals all around the world from eggs to horsemeat, tainted wine, oil, and milk forces the European community to establish an integrated approach on food control. The target is a high level of food safety, animal health, animal welfare and plant health within the European Union through so called “farm-to-table” measures and monitoring, ensuring the effective functioning of the European market.
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Cannabis Testing Laboratory Solutions
When purchasing analytical equipment, it is important to know that you are not just buying an instrument but investing in your lab’s future. Shimadzu not only provides the instrumentation but also the technical knowledge and support to help your lab be successful. We can assist with method development, instrument training, and many other areas of support like maintenance to ensure your systems are constantly operating at an exceptional level. From seed to sale, from accurate cannabis potency profi les to reliable, highly sensitive pesticide screening, let us deliver scalable, turnkey solutions to meet your testing needs for today and tomorrow.
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