Veterinary Drugs


 
Improving Data Reliability and Laboratory Efficiency Testing of Fluoroquinolones in Fatty and Non-Fatty Fish Samples with One Method using Automated Solid Phase Extraction and New Consumable Technologies


The global demand for fish as a natural source of fresh animal protein, essential fats, minerals, and vitamins continues to rise with the human population. It is estimated that natural fish resources will not be sustainable, creating the need to increase the available supply of fish through aquaculture. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), growth in the global fish supply was at an average growth rate of 3.2% per year during 1961–2009, outpacing the global population growth of 1.7% per year within the same time frame1. To keep up with the global demand, fish farming is projected to increase to an annual 6.4% growth rate through 2018, with a projected market value of $164 billion.

Fish farming is a growing commodity; however, the regulation of small and large fish farms will be critical for food safety on a global scale. According to the FAO, 37% of the fish produced is internationally traded1. China leads the world in exports of aquaculture at 61%, while the USA leads the world in imports of fish, with over 50% sourced from aquaculture4. Grown in close proximity, fish within an aquaculture environment can develop disease and impact aquaculture economic trade. The mechanisms for keeping fish healthy and free of disease is regulated within each country, often prompting the use of antibiotics in the water; however, the misuse of large antibiotic doses has increased attention on the impact to human health and thus the testing of aquaculture according to country specific food safety regulations.

Since its implementation, many new consumable technologies and improved automated systems are widely available to increase laboratory efficiency and generate more confidence in obtained results when increased food safety testing is being asked of today's laboratories. Through the use of more effective sample preparation consumables, automated solid phase extraction of fatty fish and non-fatty fish samples were compared on two solid phase extraction cartridges of differing capacities. Sample extracts were analyzed on a high performance liquid chromatography system using enhanced column sorbent technology. The result provides a matrix of options to demonstrate improved chromatography peak shape for more reliable identification of fluoroquinolones in less run time than the standard FDA method.

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